On Aug. 31, the Foreign Ministers of Armenia, Turkey, and Switzerland issued a joint announcement outlining the protocols that will guide the establishment and development of relations between Turkey and Armenia.
Below is the text of the announcement and the protocols:
The Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Turkey have agreed to start their internal political consultations on the two protocols—the “Protocol on the establishment of diplomatic relations” and the “Protocol on the development of bilateral relations”—which have been initiated in the course of their efforts under Swiss mediation.
The two protocols provide for a framework for the normalization of their bilateral relations within a reasonable timeframe. The political consultations will be completed within six weeks, after which the two protocols will be signed and submitted to the respective parliaments for the ratification on each side. Both sides will make their best efforts for the timely progression of the ratification in line with their constitutional and legal procedures.
The normalization of bilateral relations will contribute to the regional peace and stability. The Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Turkey are committed are pursuing their joint efforts with the assistance of Switzerland.
Protocol on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations Between Armenia and Turkey
The Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Turkey,
Desiring to establish good neighborly relations and to develop bilateral cooperation in the political, economic, cultural, and other fields for the benefit of their peoples, as envisaged in the Protocol on the development of relations signed on the same day,
Referring to their obligation under the Charter of the United Nations, the Helsinki Final Act, the Charter of Paris for a New Europe,
Reconfirming their commitment, in their bilateral and international relations, to respect and ensure respect for the principles equality, sovereignty, non intervention in internal affairs of other states, territorial integrity and inviolability of frontiers,
Bearing in mind the importance of the creation and maintenance of an atmosphere of trust and confidence between the two countries that will contribute to the strengthening of peace, security, and stability of the whole region, as well as being determined to refrain from the threat or the use of force, to promote the peaceful settlement of disputes, and to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Confirming the mutual recognition of the existing border between the two countries as defined by the relevant treaties of international law,
Emphasizing their decision to open the common border.
Reiterating their commitment to refrain from pursuing any policy incompatible with the spirit of good neighborly relations.
Condemning all forms of terrorism, violence and extremism irrespective of their cause, pledging to refrain from encouraging and tolerating such acts and to cooperate in combating against them,
Affirming their willingness to chart a new pattern and course for their relations on the basis of common interests, goodwill and in pursuit of peace, mutual understanding and harmony,
Agree to establish diplomatic relations as of the date of the entry into force of this Protocol in accordance with the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961 and to exchange Diplomatic Missions.
Protocol on Development of Relations Between the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Turkey
Guided by the Protocol on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Turkey signed on the same day,
Considering the perspectives of developing their bilateral relations, based on confidence and respect to their mutual interests,
Determining to develop and enhance their bilateral relations, in the political, economic, energy, transport, scientific, cultural issues and other fields, based on common interests of both countries,
Supporting the promotion of the cooperation between the two countries in the international and regional organizations, especially within the framework of the UN, the OSCE, the Council of Europe, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and the BSEC,
Taking into account the common purpose of both States to cooperate for enhancing regional stability and security for ensuring democratic and sustainable development of the region,
Reiterating their commitment to the peaceful settlement of regional and international disputes and conflicts on the basis of the norms and principles of international law,
Reaffirming their readiness to actively support the actions of the international community in addressing common security threats to the region and world security and stability, such as terrorism, transnational organized crimes, illicit trafficking of drugs and arms,
1. Agree to open the common border within 2 months after entry into force of this Protocol,
2. Agree to
Conduct regular political consultation between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of the two countries;
Implement a dialogue on the historical dimension with the aim to restore mutual confidence between the two nations, including an impartial and scientific examination of the historical records and archives to define existing problems and formulate recommendations;
Make the best possible use of existing transport, communications and energy infrastructure and networks between the two countries and to undertake measures in this regard;
Develop the bilateral legal framework in order to foster cooperation between the two countries;
Cooperate in the fields of science and education by encouraging relations between the appropriate institutions as well as promoting the exchange of specialists and students, and act with the aim of preserving the cultural heritage of both sides and launching common cultural projects;
Establish consular cooperation in accordance with the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963 in order to provide necessary assistance and protection to the citizens of the two countries;
Take concrete measures in order to develop trade, tourism and economic cooperation between the two countries;
Engage in a dialogue and reinforce their cooperation on environmental issues.
3. Agree on the establishment of an intergovernmental bilateral commission which shall comprise separate sub-commissions for the prompt implementation of the commitments mentioned in operation paragraph 2 above in this Protocol. To prepare the working modalities of the intergovernmental commission and its sub-commissions, a working group headed by the two Ministers of Foreign Affairs shall be created 2 months after the day following the entry into force of this Protocol. Within 3 months after the entry into force of this Protocol, these modalities shall be approved at ministerial level. The intergovernmental commission shall meet for the first time immediately after the adoption of the said modalities. The sub-commissions shall start their work at the latest 1 month thereafter and they shall work continuously until the completion of their mandates. Where appropriate, international experts shall take part in the sub-commissions.
The timetable and elements agreed by both sides for the implementation of this Protocol are mentioned in the annexed document (See below), which is an integral part of this Protocol.
This Protocol and the Protocol on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relation between the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Turkey shall enter into force on the same day, i.e. on the first day of the first month following the exchanges of instruments of ratification.
Annexed Document: Timetable and elements for the implementation of the Protocol on development of relations between the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Turkey.
|Steps to be undertaken||Timing|
|1. To open the common border||Within two months after the entry into force of the Protocol on the development of relations between the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Turkey|
|2. To establish a working group headed by the two Ministers of Foreign Affairs to prepare the working modalities of the intergovernmental commission and its sub-committees||2 months after the day following entry into force of the Protocol on development of relations between the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Turkey|
|3. To approve the working modalities of the intergovernmental commission and its sub-commissions and ministerial level||Within 3 months after entry into force of the Protocol on development of relations between the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Turkey|
|4. To organize the first meeting of the intergovernmental commission||Immediately after the adoption of the working modalities of the intergovernmental commission and its sub-commissions at ministerial level|
|5. To operate the following sub-commissions:
– the sub-commission on political consultations;
– the sub- commission on transport, communications, and energy infrastructure and networks,
– the sub-commission on legal matters
– the sub-commission on science and education
– the sub-commission on trade, tourism, and economic cooperation;
– the sub-commission on the historical dimension to implement a dialogue with the aim to restore mutual confidence between the two nations, including an impartial scientific examination of the historical records and archives to define existing problems and formulate recommendations, in which Armenian, Turkish as well as Swiss and other international experts shall take part.
|At the latest 1 month after the first meeting of the intergovernmental commission|