“Tavush for the Homeland” calls for accountability for police violence

Protesters symbolically chain themselves together in front of the Investigative Committee building (Photo: “Tavush for the Homeland,” June 4, 2024)

YEREVAN—As the “Tavush for the Homeland” movement continues to oppose what it sees as the Armenian government’s unilateral concessions to Azerbaijan, movement leader Archbishop Bagrat Galstanyan has articulated the functions of a proposed transitional government. This announcement comes ahead of a major rally set for Sunday, June 9, at 6:30 p.m. local time in Yerevan’s Republic Square.

During the daily wrap-up on June 4, which is held each evening after street protests in the yard of St. Anna’s Church in Yerevan, Archbishop Galstanyan highlighted the role of the temporary government. He said that the government will prioritize a comprehensive reconciliation agenda across all societal levels to foster unity and healing. Additionally, it will regulate international relations and assess the current geopolitical landscape to ensure Armenia maintains its course amidst global dynamics. It will also hold extraordinary elections within a predetermined period, with members of the interim government abstaining from participation.

Parallel to these developments, Armenia has responded to Azerbaijan’s latest proposals regarding the draft peace treaty with a revised ninth edition, the Press Secretary of Armenia’s Foreign Ministry Ani Badalyan shared on June 4. Following the receipt of Azerbaijan’s proposals at the end of April, the Armenian and Azerbaijani foreign ministers met on May 11 to discuss the draft. 

Azerbaijani Foreign Minister Jeyhun Bayramov remarked on the progress, stating, “A few days ago, we received a new proposal for a peace treaty from Armenia. I should say that there is a reduction in the number of open questions. Positive progress is observed in a number of points. In other words, we see positive dynamics here.”

However, tensions remain. During a recent joint press conference with Hungarian Foreign Minister Péter Szijjártó, Bayramov criticized Armenian Foreign Minister Ararat Mirzoyan for drawing “unacceptable parallels” between the Constitutions of Azerbaijan and Armenia. Bayramov noted that Armenia’s Constitution and other legislative acts contain territorial claims to neighboring countries. 

Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev demanded in January and again in April that Armenia remove the unification act, adopted by the legislative bodies of Soviet Armenia and the then Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, from its Constitution.

Mirzoyan recently stated that both Armenia and Azerbaijan perceive obstacles to peace within each other’s Constitutions, but amending these documents is not currently on the agenda for the negotiations. Mirzoyan has repeatedly told reporters that Azerbaijan is reluctant to recognize Armenia’s borders, impeding the negotiation process.

Over the past week, Archbishop Galstanyan, alongside participants of the “Tavush for the Homeland” movement, conducted a series of visits to key institutions to express their opposition to the Armenian government’s policies. The delegation visited government institutions including the Human Rights Defender’s Office, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Government Building during an active government session.

At the Human Rights Defender’s Office on June 4, protesters demanded accountability for the use of brutal police force against demonstrators. They specifically questioned the office’s assessment of several incidents: the visible mark of a policeman’s shoe on a young man’s face, the attempt to obstruct the entrance of His Holiness Karekin II to the Sardarabad Memorial Complex on Republic Day and police violence against MP Ashot Simonyan. Protesters urged the Human Rights Defender to address these human rights violations more assertively.

Protesters use binoculars to survey the Human Rights Defender’s Office (Photo: “Tavush for the Homeland,” June 4, 2024)

During the protest, individuals covered their mouths with red tape, representing what they see as the suppression of their right to free expression and protest. This visual statement reflected concerns within the gathering about limitations on public discourse and the stifling of dissenting voices. Additionally, some participants used binoculars to survey the Human Rights Defender’s Office, symbolizing the office’s lack of advocacy and protection of civil liberties.

During their visit to the Investigative Committee, demonstrators called on the head of the committee to release 27 individuals who were detained with brute force during a protest held in front of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on May 31. They called for upholding legal standards and ensuring the protection of citizens’ rights.

Participants expressed their dissatisfaction by staging a demonstration and symbolically chaining themselves together, in solidarity with those who were detained for a duration of 72 hours after the May 31 protest. Around 5:00 p.m. on June 3, it was confirmed that the 27 individuals were released. 

Two additional protesters were detained on May 31 yet subsequently released due to injuries sustained during the confrontation, requiring immediate hospitalization. Eyewitnesses say that law enforcement resorted to excessive force while detaining protesters.

Amidst the chaotic scene, witnesses observed members of the red berets, a special forces unit, kick Archbishop Galstanyan several times, raising concerns regarding the level of police brutality.

These events followed a demonstration on May 30, during which citizens moved their vehicles into Republic Square, aiming to block all entrances and impede Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan’s access to the government session scheduled for that morning. 

Amidst a tense atmosphere, the rally in front of the government began with an unsettling incident involving a brief stampede by the police. Police proceeded to seize vehicles belonging to protestors, with reports indicating that one car was towed away to a designated storage area with individuals still inside it.

Archbishop Galstanyan addressed gathered journalists, expressing deep concern over the situation outside the government building. “The government premises have effectively been transformed into a detention center. The heavy-handed actions of law enforcement are alarming. What transgressions have we committed? Citizens have gathered peacefully, only to witness their vehicles being confiscated. This is an affront to our rights as citizens,” he said.

Moreover, a recent investigation into allegations made by Davit Levonyan, a journalist associated with the official “Civic” news agency, has debunked claims that Archbishop Galstanyan is a foreign agent and recipient of substantial funds from the Kremlin. Conducted by the National Security Service over the course of a thorough month-long examination, the investigation uncovered no incriminating evidence against the archbishop.

The Armenian General Prosecutor’s Office confirmed the lack of supporting data for the allegations against Archbishop Galstanyan. No criminal proceedings were initiated against Levonyan for perjury.

Hoory Minoyan

Hoory Minoyan

Hoory Minoyan was an active member of the Armenian community in Los Angeles until she moved to Armenia prior to the 44-day war. She graduated with a master's in International Affairs from Boston University, where she was also the recipient of the William R. Keylor Travel Grant. The research and interviews she conducted while in Armenia later became the foundation of her Master’s thesis, “Shaping Identity Through Conflict: The Armenian Experience.” Hoory continues to follow her passion for research and writing by contributing to the Armenian Weekly.

39 Comments

  1. Ultimate accountability starts at home.

    The biggest supporter of Nikol Pashinyan has been Berge Setrakian’s AGBU. It is well-established that Berge Setrakian systematically worked with George Soros and his Open Society Foundations, to remove Russian presence from Armenia.

    Despite lip-service condemning Nikol Pashinyan’s thugs beating the Vehapar, and thugs, Berge Setrakian’s AGBU still tacitly supports Nikol Pashinyan’s government. For instance, the AGBU is hosting an event this Sunday, June 9th, 2024 with Mkhitar Hayrapetyan, minister of the High Tech Industry for the Republic of Armenia this Sunday, June 9th, 2024.

    Noubar Afeyan had business dealings in Amulsar, that are directly connected to George Soros (http://armecofront.net/en/lrahos/connect-the-dots-between-philanthropists-and-miners/). Noubar Afeyan is also tied to Moderna, and the clotshot, which is now attributed excessive deaths.

    Noubar Afeyan is also part of the World Economic Forum, as is Berge Setrakian’s daughter, Lara Setrakian.

    So, the question remains, who is the World Economic Forum? Why are members of the World Economic Forum interested in downsizing Russia? Why was one of the items in their arsenal destroying Armenian Russian relations?

  2. Towing cars parked at wrong places is okay. Arresting people who use force against the police (pushing, hitting) is okay.
    Galstanyan is a shame for Armenia. A bearded guy in a black robe who is taking orders from the supreme religious leader and declares himself an interim PM is a shame for any modern nation.
    Who is on Galstanyan’s stage? The world-renowned Artur brothers from the criminal world. A Russian guy, obviously a KGB agent, calling for the Artsakh people to return to Artsakh. The Russians were the ones who failed to protect the Artsakh people, hid in their barracks during the Azeri military operation, then helped with ethnic cleansing. Now they want them to return to their homeland–a dirty game aiming to re-inflate the conflict, new war, new destructions and victims, loss of Zangezur, and Russian intervention into the rest of Armenia.
    Galstanyan has no valid or clear agenda; hence ever shrinking columns marching behind him. Certainly he is supported by someone, be it the Kocharyan/Sarkisyan duo or Putin; these people want Armenia as part of Russia, i.e. end of the sovereign Armenian state.

    • We can only hope and pray that the honorable bishop is supported by Russia and Kocharyan. Moving away from Russia got us into this mess. At this pace, Armenia will be turned into a Turkish Vilayet in few years. Russia and men like Kocharyan are Armenia’s last hope.

    • Brothers and sisters!

      How dare those undemocratic Russians want Armenians to return to Artsakh after our twice duly elected, western financed democratic leader officially abandoned Artsakh during a high level meeting in October 6, 2022?

      We need to stop undemocratic Russians from ruining the historic peace process between Armenoans and Turks. Undemocratic Russians caused the genocide in 1915. Before undemocratic Ivan showed up in Turkey Armenians and Turks were best friend. It can happen again. Slava Ukraini! Down with Russia!

  3. It is well established by Oleg Kalugin in his book that AAC and tashnaks work for KGB/FSB. There is no Armenian/Russian relationships. Russians consider Armenia as satellite state and Armenians as its slave.

    • That’s the best thing I heard about “tashnaks” in a very long time. I hope it’s true. Armenians need to wake up from their silly dreams and finally understand that Armenia can survive in a place like the south Caucasus only if it becomes part of Russia. All other “solutions” will prove futile, and only prolong the country’s misery and mutilation.

    • Whilst no man is an island , Russia has found the antagonisim that Armenia has with Turkey and Azerbaijan an absolute boon and most convenient basis for its relationship with Armenia note how with Armenia selling out that Russia seems put out not because it cares for Armenia but it will mark an end to the “there surrounded by enemies and have no choice to be friends with us” paradigm from the Kremlin a most conceited and cynical attitude to have and growing sense that Armenians have finally seen Russia for what it is a cynical duplicious ally reliant on the vulnerability Armenia has as of one with Byzantine policies, and thus whilst not the enemy is not the friend many Armenians desperate and vulnerable had been led to presume.

    • @Charlie

      Finally voice of reason. You can help me convince more Armenians they can be rich like me with new Mercedes Benz by introducing more pro turkish policies in Armenia

      I make so much money from western NGOs to make Armenians hate Russia, like you.

      Long live money, and new mercedes Benz

  4. All of this internal pickering is taking away the focus of what should be the singular focus of the Armenian government – defensible independence against Azerbaijan and Turkey. Russians will not come to the aid and defense of Armenia. Americans and NATO allies will not come to the defense of Armenia.

    The only path to achieve defensible independence is to develop the best air defense dome system in the world over Yerevan and Gyumri. That should be the singular focus. Not for one second should the Armenians and the Diaspora ever forget that the Turks and their blood brothers seek to destroy Armenia and to remove the remnants of our proud heritage. As my aunt, the last genocide survivor from my family stated in the early 2000s’: “What they did in Nakhchivan is what they want to do in Karabakh” has now come true.

    Never, never trust the Turks and Azeris – they will break any and every ‘treaty’ to achieve their goal. Next up is the conquest of what remains of our ancestral homeland.

    • So, the brilliant Armenian needs develop the “best air defense dome system in the world” to save Armenia? What if Turks walk in under our “dome”? Why not develop the world’s most powerful ray gun to make Turkey dissapear? Why not also develop a time machine to reset time back to the period when Turkey did not exist so we can start over again? What planet do you live on? It’s amazing how out of touch with reality Armenians are. Do all Armenians live on fantasy island?

  5. Russia isn’t much better either since it’s never been to Armenia what Turkey is to Azerbaijan in addition Turkey and Azerbaijan are more strategic than Armenia and thus more important to it and Armenians need to acknowledge this reality . Due to Armenia location and other goings on in the world Armenia isn’t a priority to NATO even if Armenia was to seek to join needless Turkey would veto unless Armenia signed away itself.

    • Exactly, Sir Charlie!
      Had Armenians been intimately connected to Russians – as Azeris are to Turks, Brits are to Americans and Americans and Brits are to Jews – Russians would have taken Armenia’s interests more seriously. Long story short: Armenia needs to return to Mother Russia if Armenia wants to survive in a place like the south Caucasus…

  6. Offence is always better than defence.

    An “air dome” will cost billions of dollars and Sod’s Law dictates that it will fail.

    There are only 3 million Armenians and that means that there are only 1 million Armenian taxpayers so there are severe restrictions on how much money Armenia will ever have.

    Instead, Armenia must devote its money on long range missiles.

    As long as the Turks know that Armenia has the missiles, resolve, determination and will to destroy both Istanbul and Baku, they will behave themselves.

    • @ Robert Whig, Quite so the war in Ukraine has resulted in heavy losses for anti air systems on both sides. Even Israel has recently lost an iron dome battery to a guided drone after having it’s position revealed by recconacence drones including bait drones. Bit like how Armenia was tricked by Azeri biplanes converted into bait/recconacence drones in 2020 .
      Whilst a different topic in an earlier post this year one stated about Pashinyan being a traitor and coward for Armenia policy of only recognised Israel and no formal recognition of Palestine, ironic since Israel is no friend of Armenia and Azerbaijan recognises Palestine, this is a policy which Armenia has held since 1991 so whilst he is of some blame clearly this was an established position of Yerevan when he took office in 2018 something that predecessors could have addressed but clearly made no commitment upon.

    • Russia without Armenia is Mother Russia still.

      Armenia without Russia is a Turkish vilayet where the Turks are the Masters and the Armenians, the Dhimmis and the Turks do what they want with Armenian women.

      Just read Armenian folk stories to see what happens when the Turks rule.

      The siren songs of the insane Russophobes on here must be ignored.

      Sane Armenians know that Geography cannot be defeated.

  7. At this stage of total disaster and despair for Armenia, anyone who directly or tacitly defends the current government, including by finding faults and attacking the Bishop – the person leading the movement of popular discontent – is a nikolbot. I’m not a religious person but I’m very grateful that he has stepped up to lead the people in this struggle to survive.

    • Armenians rejected Russia in 2018. Armenians rejected Kocharyan in 2021. Today Bishop Bagrat is Armenia’s last hope. If Armenians also reject the bishop, Armenia will once again become a Turkish vilayet. We Armenians had the opportunity during the past 30 years to be like a Belarus or a Chechnya, we instead chose to be like a Kurdistan. We got what we wanted in 2018, a western financed “democratic” revolution. Now, we are getting what we truely deserve. God bless democracy…

  8. As an atheist, I have been following ,Bishop Bagrat’s, movement to get rid of this cursed regime, that has brought Armenia to the point of almost no existence. Today, during a rally in Vanadzor, the Bishop made a very critical announcement regarding the future of these cursed regime, he said,” It is time for decisive action, he[ Pashinyan] should leave,but since he does not want to leave,then he should be removed and WILL BE REMOVED”. I wish the Bishop and his supporters victory.

  9. Tomorrow,Sunday June 9th, is a big day for Armenians of Armenia. At 18:30hr ( local time ) , at,Republic Square, Bishop Bagrat, will lead a peaceful protest demanding the resignation of, PaSHEEThead and his circus clowns. Stay tuned.

  10. Anyone who is against Pagrad Galstanyan – the man himself, Bishop aside – can only a supporter of the Pashinian. What cannot be denied is that under Nicol’s watch Artsakh and Tavush (part of), and other bits of Armenian land here and there, have been lost to the Azeri wolf with the encouragement of the Turkish fox and dare one say the indifference of the Russian chameleon. These are sad days for all Armenians everywhere – except for those who live for today and nevermind about tomorrow! I hope the bishop can gain more popularity and manage to bring down this weak unpatriotic leader who has been a disaster so far. Looking ahead, Armenia can befriend and trade with Russia, EU, USA, China, India, etc. without being a slave to anyone. And yes, long-range ‘strategic’ missiles plus any other potent military capability are absolutely essential. Looking at these well-built and well-fed policemen and red, blue and black berets, we seem to have a good fighting spirit and presence; although this should be trained and aimed towards the real enemy and not towards a patriotic bishop and his civilian supporters!

  11. Corrected version..
    Anyone who is against Pagrad Galstanyan – the man himself, Bishop aside – can only be a supporter of Pashinoghlu. What cannot be denied is that under Nicol’s watch Artsakh and Tavush (part of), and other bits of Armenian land here and there, have been lost to the Azeri wolf with the encouragement of the Turkish fox and dare one say the indifference of the Russian chameleon. These are sad days for all Armenians everywhere – except for those who live for today and nevermind about tomorrow! I hope the bishop can gain more popularity and manage to bring down this weak unpatriotic leader who has been a disaster so far. Looking ahead, Armenia can befriend and trade with Russia, EU, USA, China, India, etc. without being a slave to anyone. And yes, long-range ‘strategic’ missiles plus any other potent military capability are absolutely essential. Looking at these well-built well-fed policemen and red, blue and black berets, we seem to have a good fighting spirit and presence; although this should be trained and aimed towards the real enemy and not towards a patriotic bishop and his civilian supporters!

  12. Guys you you don’t understand what’s going I Armenia today living in there you Understand that Russia has never been a friend or an ally of Armenia ,100 years ago they sold our lands to Turks after the Armenian Genocide and did it again 2 years ago not allow even to say prayers in the churches for Genocide victims for fifty years,while German ally made them scape from punishment only Armenian Tehlirian carried justice to Talaat,don’t forget Russians rushed to Germany meet Talaat to make deal with the Turks this is not fake news check history books.I wrote years ago that Tashnags pick the wrong horse Kocharian,and today still follow the same way.couple years ago when Ishkhan Saghatelian was giving a lecture in Watertown the only true sentence his last word told the crowd (we have to get to the crowds to listen what they wanted,and they did not do it)I am thashnag without membership,no party leader could convince me to be one I don’t stand to lies,the so called Thashnags in Yerevan are looked at as Russian Agents and enemy of the people.

  13. The Americans, Turks and jews dictate Armenian foreign policy. Armenia is under occupation. Pro pashoglu armenians complained about Russian interference? You aint seen nothing yet. Artsakh was just a taste of things to come. Armenians in Armenia will be speaking turkish soon and will be changing their names to turkish. I hope the hayastancis who back ghis despicable ‘armenian’ government will be happy.

  14. The Armenian world rejected Russia in 2018. Armenian voters rejected Russia-backed Kocharyan in 2021. Today, Bishop Bagrat is Armenia’s last hope. If Armenians also reject the bishop, Armenia will once again become a Turkish vilayet.

    We Armenians had the opportunity during the past 30 years to be like a Belarus or a Chechnya, we instead chose to be like a Kurdistan. We got what we wanted in 2018, a western financed “democratic” revolution that brought professional Russophobes and Turkophiles into power. Now, we are getting what we truely deserve, a historic disaster.

    If Armenia does not figure out a way to join the Russian Federation in the near future, Arnenia, as we knew it, will be no more within a few years.

    • As for Armenia and Russia, when will you comphrend that Armenians and (Slavic Great) Russians are not brethren in the way Anatolian Turks and Azeris are thus even with the best of fraternity can never be kith and kin. The Ukrainians and Russians are far more closely related yet are at war. Armenias closest kin are the Greeks upon linguistics and religiously the Georgians and their closest kin race adjacent are the Kurds and Persians. Britain relationship with the USA is a 20th century occurrence prior was distrustful and contentious. The relationship between the USA and Israel in the way we recognise only got going after 1967 prior was remarkably limited in the military sphere interestingly in part as Israel was a state socialist country and not a liberal economy like the USA. Recently demographic changes have led to a distancing and during the Trump era who did so much for Israel the state relationship was closer than ever although the social relationship between Israeli and American Jews became more distant generally.

    • Sir Charlie,
      Stop being silly, ol chap. Are Chechens, Ossetians and Tatars the “brethren” of Russians? My point is, if Armenia was part of the Russian world, as it had been for most of the past 200 hundred years, Russia would have treated Armenia’s interests on the same level as that of Russia’s. Do you now understand?

  15. Brothers and sisters!

    Bishop Bagrat is a Russian agent! Putler (Putin + Hitler = Putler) is making him go against our beloved, twice elected, freedom and democracy loving prime minister. How dare those undemocratic Russians want Armenians to return to Artsakh after our twice duly elected, western financed democratic leader officially abandoned Artsakh during a high level meeting in October 6, 2022?

    We need to stop undemocratic Russians from ruining the historic peace process between Armenoans and Turks. Undemocratic Russians caused the genocide in 1915. Before undemocratic Ivan showed up in Turkey, Armenians and Turks were best of friends. It can happen again!

    Slava Ukraini! Viva Pashinyan! Down with Russia!

    • Greg,
      You forgot to mention that Nikol officially abandoned Artsakh on October 06, 2022, during a high level meeting – in Europe – and he failed to – inform – Moscow that he was planning to do so.

  16. @ Gurgen when Armenia was part of the Russian Empire it had its own priorities first namely the (Slavic) ” Great Russians ” coming first along with a balance of interests such as the Georgians and Azeris regarding Armenia which although the Armenians are the closest kin to the Russians on linguistic grounds and a shared Orthodox church although for Armenia the source was via Syria and the Levant and for Russia via Greece. It’s important not to overate the connections especially as Russia has always had a multitude of other priorities in its vast empire, thus has to balance against other interests and needs. Perhaps look up Alexander Dugin and Armenia; a man understood to be close to Putin although probably more candid and extreme helped by not having state authority hence responsibility, whose daughter was killed by Ukrainian bomb presumably meant for him. He is clear that despite being an ally that Russia couldn’t allow it’s policies towards Turkey and Azerbaijan to be defined by Russia’s alliance with Armenia simply they are more important geographically and Armenia needed to understand this and that Russia had helped to restore Karabakh to Azerbaijan, Russia almost never uses the word Arktash in reference to the region. Remember for Azerbaijan it’s relationship with Russia had been impaired by Russia perceived support for Armenia over its until 2020 control of much of Azerbaijan, so for Russia, Armenia whose loyalty to Russia based on its anxiety about Turkey and Azerbaijan could be taken for granted. Indeed has been a boon to Russia and most convenient and formed the basis for the post WW1 relationship between Russia and Armenia, not a sense of kindred peoples! Recent events locally and further afield and the passing of time have led to a realisation that whilst Russia isn’t the enemy like Turkey and Azerbaijan are but is not the friend it had been assumed to be because of that either.

  17. Sir Charlie,
    You are a bad agent of influence. You make no sense when you write. In any case, please worry about your third world cesspool called “Great Britain”. Also realize that the problems we have seen in the south Caucasus going back 100-plus years is due to Anglo-American meddling.

    • @ Gurgen all much for you? Mother Russia full of such love for Armenia faultless in all ways and knows what’s best for Armenia including it’s boundaries which it drew for them generally to Armenia disadvantage but the Kremlin is known as a citadel of drunken liars and ignoramuses .

      Just take a look at Alexander Dugin and Armenia although your Kremlin source might be keeping you in ignorance which is their speciality .

    • @Charlie

      Classic deflection tactic employed by the British

      You sir are disgusting

    • @ Sir Charlie,
      That’s it ol chap. Show your primal hate.
      But you brits need to stop hiding behind other peoples and directly take on Russians yourselves. Now that would be a show to watch. I would love to see what Russians would do to you blokes…

      Cheerio ol chap :)

  18. @ Gurgen, if one engages in insults then one should be able take them.
    If Putin has the means or the courage he could take us on. Militarily Britain is quite weak in context nowadays years of cuts, pointless wars and the fraud of woke etc have rotted the nation. The latest D Day anniversary felt more like a funeral wake than a celebration that previous comemorations used to have the optimism has clearly declined. Nevertheless this doesn’t alter the fact that Russia has been flippant with Armenia and it’s recent losses and it’s daliances with Turkey and Azerbaijan shouldn’t be ignored even if the Kremlin would rather string Armenia along and for that matter Azerbaijan with double talk. Armenia has now declared that it will begin to leave the CTSO it’s extraordinary for a country to leave an organisation when the lead power is in conflict that subsequently goes on to win. Take note of the fact that Nazi Germany was abandoned by its axis allies as it’s foutunes faltered. Along with the fact NATO has now gained Finland and Sweden as members. As for Britain there’s an increasing realisation that the nation can no longer assume it’s security on the basis of WW2 and the next time British troops go gallivanting generally far from home for king and country it’s unlikely to be the one sided affairs of recent decades.

  19. @Gurgen @Yakub

    Russophobes are educationally sub-normal as they failed their Geography exams at school and do not know how to read a map.

    It is best to ignore them.

    Unfortunatly, for all of Armenia’s enemies, the Turks, the Jews, the Americans, delusiions cannot defeat Geography.

  20. Armenia might become part of Iran who ceded it to Russia under the Turkmenchay treaty of 1928. It won’t be so bad, in my opinion.

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