Armenian constitutional reform sparks concerns

‘Hayakve’ initiative press conference (Facebook, February 6, 2024)

YEREVAN—Avetik Chalabyan, the coordinator of the “Hayakve” initiative, issued a stark warning during a February 6 press conference regarding the dangers posed by proposed constitutional reforms in Armenia.

Chalabyan said that under the pretext of constitutional amendments, there is a concerted effort to erode Armenian statehood, transforming the country into a semi-state entity beholden to Turkey and Azerbaijan. He accused the current administration of openly capitulating to pressure from Baku and using the threat of war to coerce the populace into accepting unconstitutional changes.

On January 19, Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan announced plans for a new Constitution. He argued that, rather than simply amend the current Constitution, Armenia requires a new legal framework to enhance its competitiveness and viability in light of evolving geopolitical dynamics.

Azerbaijan’s President Ilham Aliyev has appeared to lend credence to the conspiracy theories circulating in Armenia that Pashinyan is submitting to Azerbaijani demands. On February 1, Aliyev said that peace could be achieved between Armenia and Azerbaijan if the former revises its Constitution and other relevant documents. Aliyev highlighted Armenia’s Declaration of Independence, which is cited in the preamble of the Constitution, as a point of contention, viewing its reference to the unification of Armenia with Artsakh as a territorial claim against Azerbaijan.

In an interview with Armenian Public Radio on February 1, Prime Minister Pashinyan expressed concerns that maintaining references to the Declaration of Independence in the Constitution could hinder peace efforts. He said that Armenia’s economic growth and military reforms might be perceived as preparation for war, potentially leading to hostility from neighboring countries.

Armenian Foreign Minister Ararat Mirzoyan initially downplayed rumors linking the proposed constitutional changes to peace negotiations, but later acknowledged Azerbaijan’s concerns regarding Armenia’s Declaration of Independence.

Mirzoyan said that both countries had identified legal issues within each other’s constitutions and provided clarifications. However, the Armenian opposition accuses the government of aiming to remove references to the Declaration of Independence from the Constitution, particularly those pertaining to the reunification of Armenia and Artsakh. This controversy underscores the complex dynamics at play as both nations navigate the path to lasting peace and stability in the region.

The “Hayakve” initiative, known for its advocacy against recognizing Artsakh as part of Azerbaijan, has consistently opposed such measures. During the February 6 press conference, Chalabyan reiterated the initiative’s commitment to upholding Armenia’s national goals, as enshrined in the Declaration of Independence. He emphasized the determination of the initiative’s participants to resist the government’s anti-national agenda through all available legal means.

Chalabyan reminded attendees that the “Hayakve” initiative seeks to criminalize any recognition of Artsakh as part of Azerbaijan, proposing severe penalties, including imprisonment, for officials who do so. The initiative also aims to penalize denial of the Armenian Genocide.

Chalabyan warned of the grave consequences of succumbing to dishonor, stressing the imperative of preserving Armenia’s sovereignty and historical legacy amid mounting threats.

Armenian opposition figures have accused PM Pashinyan of capitulating to Azerbaijani pressure by seeking to remove any mention of Artsakh and the Armenian Genocide from the constitution, potentially leading to further concessions from Armenia to Azerbaijan and Turkey.

During a February 6 session of the Armenian National Assembly, Artur Khachatryan, a deputy of the “Hayastan” faction, raised concerns over what he perceives as a threat to Armenia’s independence and sovereignty.

Khachatryan highlighted the presence of Azerbaijani troops on 150-200 square kilometers of Armenia’s territory, criticizing the government’s inaction in addressing this issue. He accused the authorities of complacency in the face of Turkish and Azerbaijani demands, particularly regarding proposed changes to the Armenian Constitution.

“The Turks demand that we change the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia,” stated Khachatryan, suggesting that the government’s efforts in drafting constitutional amendments have been influenced by Turkish pressure. He drew a comparison to General Douglas MacArthur’s demand for constitutional changes in Japan following its capitulation after World War II. 

Khachatryan criticized what he described as a capitulant political force within Armenia, which he believes is allowing Turkish interference and undermining Armenian sovereignty. He suggested that the proposed amendments may be influenced by external forces, particularly Azerbaijan, with the intention of weakening Armenia.

Khachatryan is one of several lawmakers from the “Hayastan” faction who the Armenian Foreign Ministry has permitted to see a confidential document outlining several proposals for an Armenia-Azerbaijan peace treaty. In a February 6 interview with Azatutyun, Khachatryan refrained from divulging specifics of the draft peace agreement, yet shared his skepticism about Azerbaijan’s genuine commitment to peace, suggesting that Azerbaijan lacks sincere intentions for reconciliation.

Khachatryan argued that Azerbaijan’s supposed preference for a stronger Armenia contradicts its historical behavior, suggesting that aggressors typically target weaker states. He highlighted the simultaneous demands made by Aliyev and Pashinyan, hinting at potential manipulation tactics employed by Azerbaijan to influence Armenia’s constitutional reforms.

Gegham Manukyan, also a member of the opposition “Hayastan” faction, has voiced apprehensions regarding the government’s intentions, suggesting that the proposed constitutional amendments are aimed at addressing Azerbaijan’s demands while simultaneously consolidating power within Armenia. 

Manukyan, also having reviewed the draft peace agreement at the Foreign Ministry, said that Pashinyan’s primary objective in this process is clear – to align the constitutional changes with demands outlined in the peace agreement. He told Azatutyun that such a move poses a significant risk to Armenia’s newly established statehood. 

As part of the ongoing endeavor to redefine various aspects of Armenian identity, Alen Simonyan, the Speaker of the National Assembly of Armenia, recently took to Telegram to articulate his support for transforming both the national anthem and coat of arms of the Republic of Armenia.

Abraham Gasparyan, Ph.D., a political scientist and the founder and director of Genesis Armenia, recently voiced his perspective on the proposed alterations to the Armenian Constitution and national symbols. Speaking on his program “Change the Channel with Abraham Gasparyan,” he delved into the significance of national emblems, including anthems, flags and coats of arms, asserting that they serve as mirrors reflecting a nation’s evolving societal landscape and geopolitical context.

Gasparyan underscored the emotive resonance inherent in national anthems, portraying them as potent instruments capable of evoking patriotic sentiments and historical consciousness. He lamented what he perceived as a lack of reverence from the Armenian government, particularly under PM Pashinyan’s administration, towards the national anthem and its profound symbolism. Gasparyan accused the authorities of belittling the sacrifices made by previous generations in the pursuit of national freedom, cautioning that such disregard could precipitate further losses, potentially including the territories of Artsakh and Armenia.

Hoory Minoyan

Hoory Minoyan

Hoory Minoyan was an active member of the Armenian community in Los Angeles until she moved to Armenia prior to the 44-day war. She graduated with a master's in International Affairs from Boston University, where she was also the recipient of the William R. Keylor Travel Grant. The research and interviews she conducted while in Armenia later became the foundation of her Master’s thesis, “Shaping Identity Through Conflict: The Armenian Experience.” Hoory continues to follow her passion for research and writing by contributing to the Armenian Weekly.


  1. What did you get with Karabagh? Nothing. It is reminder of Soviet junk.

    Change the Constitution and make it more friendly to Turkey.

    I moved to Armenia from Istanbul, and I’ve made so much money introducing Turkish politicians and Turkish businessmen to local Armenians.

    It’s time for Armenians to forget 1915, forget Karabagh and Zangezeur, and forget Soviet junk. With Russians, all you get are kartoshkas.

    With Turkey, new Mercedes Benzs for everyone

    • Exactly brother Sevan B!
      Like I said back in 2020 it’s better to be a Turkish dog than a Russian agent.
      Thank God for Western financing. We wouldn’t be here without it.

    • The Istanbul Armenians are a brainwashed lot suffering from Stockholm syndrome. The Turkish state, Turkish nationalism, and brainwashing in Turkish schools and by the Turkish media, has seen to that.

    • Too bad Soghomon Tehlirian and Arshavir Shiragian are no longer with us. They are in heaven.

  2. 1. Artsakh was the last remaining region within the Armenian Highlands, where the autochthonous Armenians had always had the majority. Now it’s gone. I hope you are happy.

    2. Being more friendly to TR will never work because of their ongoing genocide denial and genocidal policies.

    “Genocide denial is one of the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres.”
    -Gregory H. Stanton

    3. It’s not our national identity that massacres us. Now read that sentence again. Without our identity, we wouldn’t still be around.

    4. Since the Armenian Genocide is and has always been an ONGOING crime thanks to its ongoing denial, your absurd argument about “forgetting the genocide” has zero value. The history is crystal clear, from the Hammidian Massacres of 1894-1896 to Artsakh. “Being friendly” to TR has nothing to do with it either, as history has shown time and time again. Read my lips: As long as the “denial” is around, every single Armenian, no matter where they live, is in danger. Even “friendly” guys like you, assuming you are an Armenian.

    5. Zangezur is an Armenian word, like Nakhichevan.

    6. You are either a non-Armenian person or one that lacks critical thinking.

  3. Forget it! You sound like a Turkey mouthpiece who expects Armenians to sell their freedom, honour and dignity to the Turks in return for so-called peace. We all know that Armenia is between a rock and a hard place when it comes to lack of military power to protect its sovereignty. It is difficult to see how it can survive on its own without a strong ally. Does anyone believe that USA or Europe would actually come to the aid of Armenia if attacked by Aliyev? They will talk a lot and drag their feet as always while Armenia suffers. Sadly, unless by some miracle Armenia gains nuclear arms, then it has to face reality and opt for the lesser evil and restore good relations with Russia. If there is a better realistic option please someone explain what!

    • I have no evidence to say this and perhaps it is wishful thinking. Could France, a nuclear power, be protecting the Republic of Armenia behind the scenes?

  4. “Sevan” and “Levon” sound like Turks.

    Armenia’s politics and foreign policy is formed by its geography.

    Staying close with Russia is just simple common sense.

  5. @aram M , Sevan B clearly seems some kind of wind up. Nevertheless nuclear weapons are a white elephant it seems as Russian possession of them doesn’t stop Ukraine causing no end of losses for them and Israel presumed possession hasn’t prevented Hamas from their spectacular attack on 7 October . Yes quite correct in not expecting much except platitudes from Europe and USA in the event of Armenia being attacked. However Russia a nominal ally is clearly preoccupied elsewhere and is actually quite friendly with Turkey and Azerbaijan something for the pro Russians to bear in mind.

    • Charlie, you’re on same wind up as Sevan B, although a bit more nuanced.

      You’re also preaching Armenia should continue the Pashinyan plan to distance itself from Russia, knowing full well that the only geopolitical players in the Caucasus are the Turks and Russians.

      Charlie, you are the sly version of Sevan B

  6. Due to reasons beyond my control my comments got posted after Bedros G. I am with Bedros all the way with regard to denialist Turkey. I am not a Russophile but after 30 years of ‘democratic rule’ in Armenia what have we gained from our closeness to the West, esp. militarily?. In Sept 2020 USA and Europe preferred to be side not with Armenia but Azerbaijan! We know we got punished by Russia then for moving away towards the West. So if we cannot trust the West I am still eager to learn if anyone can think of a better alternative than restoring our ties with Russia. Is there a better realistic solution?

  7. My comments should’ve got posted before (not after) Bedros G. I am with Bedros all the way with regard to denialist Turkey. I am not a Russophile but after 30 years of ‘democratic rule’ in Armenia what have we gained from our closeness to the West, esp. militarily?. In Sept 2020 USA and Europe preferred to take sides not with Armenia but Azerbaijan! We know we got punished by Russia then for moving away towards the West. So if we cannot trust the West I am still eager to learn if anyone can think of a better alternative than restoring our ties with Russia. Is there a better realistic solution?

  8. Dear Charles, we can argue about nuclear weapons and of course nobody wants to see them used. They are the final deterrent though, if one is seriously facing defeat against an invader. Currently, neither Russia nor Israel are being invaded; in fact the opposite is true. Aside from all that the question remains as to who can Armenia trust to be their ally? China? India? Iran? We can buy weapons from them and these have to equal or better what Azeris have in their arsenal. But then the Azeris have Turkey to back them up. Who have Armenia got??

    • Money would be better spent on more readily useful tools such as cruise missiles fpv drones guided drones machine guns ammunition than nuclear weapons.. As for who can Armenia trust to be an ally the answer is probably no one. Nevertheless a time for a reappraisal is due with Russia it’s own relationship with Turkey and Azerbaijan can’t be ignored and it’s own support to Armenia has been of a “you have no other friends but us so you must be grateful for that” a distinctly cavalier attitude in turn Armenia had been naive and narrow minded to assume as Russia only ally in south Caucasus that it wouldn’t allow Armenia to suffer a reverse hence the lack of resolution to the conflict with Azerbaijan although Russia never asserted that it would safeguard Armenian N-K there was a general feeling this was a legal technicality and in the event of war would ensure that it’s position was upheld, just as Russia would intervene in Georgia and Ukraine, this was a severe misjudgment on a national level.

  9. Post independence Armenia was politically much closer to Russia than Azerbaijan and Georgia although not having a common boundary. Russia maintained a neo colonial influence upon Armenia and Armenia joined the Russian led CTSO . In the 1990s and 2000s when the relationship between Russia and the USA and Europe was in a honeymoon phase, Armenia being aligned to Russia was not going to severely impair relations except on security alignment. However as is well known from the 2010s this began to sour into what we have nowadays. Hence any nation aligned to Russia will automatically be viewed with suspicion by Europe and USA even if not seen as plotting against in itself. In September 2020 Armenia was seen by Russia as less aligned after the accession of Pashinyan in 2018 . As for Arktash there was the majority of Soviet era N-K under Armenian control with no UN recognised countries recognising it and significant areas of internationally recognised Azerbaijan ajoining under Armenian control and four UN resolutions had called for Armenia to withdraw. Thus there was no support in the USA and Europe for Armenia position although no overt hostility to the status quo of 1994 – 2020 . Hence when Azerbaijan was to attack there was no international support for Armenia. Azerbaijan whatever people may feel had international law on its side regarding the Armenian held areas of Azerbaijan beyond Soviet N-K which had been depopulated of the Azeri population although it’s fair to mention the Armenian population of Azerbaijan outside of Armenian held areas had been largely banished from 1988 . As for Soviet era N-K autonomous region Azerbaijan had revoked it’s autonomy in 1990 and regarding the Alma Alta declaration which Armenia and Azerbaijan among most soviet countries partook was a commitment to uphold the SSR boundaries as national ones in (then inevitable) event of them declaring independence from the USSR. Hence even with N-K it was considered part of Azerbaijan in the international law sense despite the perverse decision of the Bolsheviks in 1922 . Say unlike the Yugoslav wars manipulated from beginning to the end by the USA in the name of self determination and in effect hobble Serbia. The war in between Armenia and Azerbaijan was let to play out to its own devices hence Armenia had no outside actors actively manipulating to their detriment and when the tables turned a generation later no one to manipulate to safeguard their position.

    • What you described tells me that Armenian diplomacy failed to convey simple truths about Artsakh’s strategic position, and the historical circumstances that led to its 35 year sovereignty. Not only did Armenia fail to properly convey its position, but the international community has beeb blinded by Machiavellian self interest, as well as Turkey in NATO, Azerbaijan’s persuasive oil wealth, PanTurkish alliances, and the corruptive influences of Azerbaijani Bribes

      As for the surrounding territories around Nagorno-Karabakh, those areas were strategically essential to the security of Artsakh; a truth validated after those areas were lost in 2020. Armenian diplomacy failed to convey Artsakh’s strategic circumstances, to the world community. Azerbaijan’s hired lobby firms, and laundered bribe money doesn’t help matters. We saw the fruits of an isolated Nagorno-Karabakh after 2020, when Artsakh was besieged for 9 months, then bit the dust under the burden of a full-scale military invasion.

  10. Armenia had the option to be like a Belarus, Armenians chose to be like a Kurdistan. Armenians are a politically illiterate people who suffer from arrogance and cognitive dissonance. The last 30 years proved that Armenians are not ready for nor even worthy of independence. Being that Armenia is located in the south Caucasus and not in central America, and being that we live in a Machiavellian world, the country faces two real options; Russification or Turkification. Anyone claiming that there is a third or western option is in-effect preaching Turkification. For Armenia’s sake, the sooner Russians annex Armenia the better.

  11. If Armenia loses Syunik then Armenia is indeed finished.

    Armenia will have no choice but to beg for admission into the Russian Federation.

    • If Armenia looses Syunik region whilst remaining legally aligned to Russia then it will be the end of the alliance and sense of fraternity as Armenian faith and hope in Russia will have been shown to be in vain. Such is theoretical and conjecture at the time of writing.

    • That is correct, Sir Charlie. Because Armenians chose to play dangerous games with Armenia’s one and only ally, an ally that also happens to be a superpower located in Armenia’s neighborhood, Moscow will make Armenians beg for Mother Russia. Your agenda has already failed. After Russia’s victory in Ukriane, Moscow will return its attention to the south Caucasus. For Armenia’s sake, Armenia needs to be annexed by Russia, with force if necessary.

    • @ Gurgen only Russia can declare annexations of land it doesn’t control at least Armenia avoided that embarrassing situation with its inept conduct over Arktash. Russia has manipulated Armenia so that it is Armenia only legal ally other nations sympathetic to Armenia Greece France Iran India even in its way the USA aren’t able to develop relationships with Armenia due to the tie in the same tie in that neo Colonially stymied the gas pipeline from Iran while Azerbaijan and Georgia had no such impediments with their pipeline. Russia has always supported the principle that N-K was part of Azerbaijan but would engage in double talk with desperate and gullible Armenians. As i have said to you before Russia hasn’t been to Armenia what the USA is to Israel and was for the Kosovo Albanian cause and your response to this uncomfortable fact is to engage in various sophistries such as Kosovo will be abandoned by the USA, this is probably true in time. However put it this way one would still hold appreciation for someone who helped one even if no more rather than someone who wasn’t much help when they are no more. What kind of victory do you think Russia will gain a ceasefire style one like Armenia once enjoyed or a more clear one like Germany in 1918 or an absolute like 1945 ?
      Even if Russia compels Ukraine to accept loss this will be deemed odious by the west who will maintain economic strictures upon Russia and military support for Ukraine until it concurs unless of Russia defeats the USA and UK proper the rest of NATO members are basically hangers on. The great delusion Armenia had was to think and act like it’s 1994 victory was comparable to the defeat of Germany in the world wars of the 20th century all Armenia won was a ceasefire on favourable terms which there was nothing to stop Azerbaijan to reverse once it was in the position to they were playing the long game and had international law on their side. Milosevic of Yugoslavia thought and acted that Russia was Serbia only friend the Serbs nowadays whilst sympathetic to Russia do not have the giddy adoration of the 1990s and a wiser more sober reassessment of realities and less clutching at straws and hope against hope mentality. Armenia is going through a similar situation currently. In turn Europe gulled by prolonged general peace is finding out the mantra of beating Hitler and the Nazis doesn’t mean that peace will ensure as a result of this for evermore, indeed MSM are now openly warning of the risk of a direct clash with Russia not merely the proxy affair over Ukraine! Perhaps if such a war is to occur the protocols of the UN will collapse and there will be nothing to uphold the boundaries this means that Armenia could openly claim Arktash and Kars for example however it does mean there would be no legal protocol to safeguard to prevent Armenia being conquered by Turkey and Azerbaijan as the world would become a blatantly Hobbesian place once again. Remember there was no Berlin airlift for Arktash not even the Red Cross were able to visit during the blockade as Russia whom some Armenians have the greatest reverence for didn’t match their expectations. Russia could have emphasized that it had issues with the Pashinyan government but not the Armenian people and state but by leaving them in the lurch to try and punish Pashinyan has only succeeded alienating more Armenian with the sour taste of misplaced affinity being realised to be in error.

    • Sir Charlie,
      Your Chatham House inspired rhetoric is silly to say the least. I suggest you go back to your supervisors and ask them to better explain to you what Israel and Kosovo mean to the West. In the meanwhile, let me help you understand what you are trying to talk about. Via organized Jewry in UK and US, who have great control over finance and news media and thus politicians, Israel controls the West. Kosovo is for all intents and purposes a protectorate of the West. After NATO’s military intervention in 1999, Western officials quelled all attempts by Albanians to unite Kosovo with Albania. Smarter ones among your supervisors may explain to you that what the West did for Kosovo was more-or-less what Russians wanted to do. Since 1994, Moscow wanted Armenians to stop attempts to annex Artsakh and allow it to bring Artsakh under its umbrella. Long story short, Armenians and Turks did not allow them, and Moscow was to weak/limited in capability to get it done forcefully.

    • Sir Charlie,
      Before you give us Armenians any advice, first free yourselves from American imperialists, Zionists and your so-called “royals”. Since you seem to have a problem understanding my English, I encourage you to listen to the following blokes because speak your dialect.

      Lowkey EXPOSES Israel’s Secret Role in Britain

      Former British Soldier EXPOSES King Charles

    • @ Gurgen If only I had Chatham House supervisors i would be a rich man. However my views on NATO and the war in Ukraine and even Israel and the demographics wokery of Europe as per coundenhove kalegeri plan would disqualify me. Nevertheless Russia has only helped to supervise the transfer of Arktash to Azerbaijan which removed a cause of runction namely Armenian control and Russia perceived support for this as for Armenia Russia is like without us you have no friends but us and just ignore our dalliances with Turkey and Azerbaijan anyway you are so insular one might not really notice anyway and see no irony and hypocrisy our war of conquest in Ukraine whilst we
      scolded you for seeking similar with Arktash.
      As for Israel the passing of time, the dying away of Holocaust survivors and having become a regional power and consequently bully and also in regard to Europe the passing of time massive reparations by Germany,the demographic changes (coundenhove kalegeri plan) means that Europe’s guilt just won’t stick anymore so whilst they are no friends of Armenia they do face and interesting conundrum namely as wiser Jews have warned in Israel and their diaspora that the Holocaust won’t save us forever and it’s ability to serve as a national unifier and international device to manipulate the rest of the world particularly Europe and USA despite
      massive efforts has faded sharply in recent years and will inexorably continue to do so.

    • It’s nonsense. Karabakh was a burden for Russia and not necessary. Russia needs the controll over transport routes and permanent conflicts in the region to legitimize it’s footprint and troops in the South Caucasus. Russia will give Syunik to Turks like it did with Nahitshevan, Artzakh, Kars, Van, Ardahan, Trapezunt, Javakh to Georgians, Bakurakan, Kirovabad.

  12. Tragically, with the fall and dissolution of Artsakh and the flight of all Armenians, the Armenian presence has been extinguished there forever.

    The cruel starvation blockade imposed by Azerbaijan on Artsakh, was ultimately their callous plan to demoralize and weaken the Artsakhis, in order to make their final assault and destruction of Artsakh and the ethnic cleansing of all Armenians so much easier, as it turned out.

    So many warnings were made and the telltale signs were all there, but to no avail. The so called “international community” did nothing and did not care, because foreign policy is based on Machiavellian national self-interests, not morals and human rights, despite the rhetoric they love to use and pretend to uphold. Azerbaijan itself made its intentions very clear, with the utterances of dictator Aliyev down to his officials, that they would not allow Artsakh to exist and would not accept any Armenian to live under its jurisdiction who doesn’t submit. In other words, become a kind of slave.

    After ethnically cleansing all Armenians, Azerbaijan began to systematically destroy all Armenian heritage, from churches, khachkars, cemeteries down to Armenian language signs. They are in the process of repopulating Artsakh with Azerbaijanis.

    And none of this would have been possible, without Putin’s permission, who also did this to punish Armenia under Nikol Pashinyan, for his pro-Western policy and realignment, against Russia’s national interests, and to reward his fellow dictator Aliyev, who is a Russophile and who is as hostile to the West like himself. During the First Artsakh War, the exact opposite was the case.

  13. Brothers!
    Armenians were living peacefully with Turks for centuries. Russians caused the Armenian genocide they saw a threat in Turkish Armenian friendship. Armenia was a large country before Russians gave away most of Armenian lands to make Armenia small and weak. Russians are pure evil and genocidal. They are offshoots of Mongols. If you dont believe me just ask Ukranians and Jews and they will tell you. Russians hate us today because we are democratic people and because we love western culture. Armenia’s only hope is to make peace with Turks and Azeris and join with the mighty west to put an end to evil and undemocratic Russia for once and for all.

  14. Apologist and propagandist for Turkey and Azerbaijan: Armenians were subjugated by the Turks for almost a millenia (which you portray as “Armenians were living peacefully with Turks for centuries”); they were discrimimated, persecuted, enslaved, assimilated, Islamized, and occasionally massacred, which became worse in the late 19th century/early 20th century, and which culminated the Armenian Genocide. You can take your propaganda to the Turkish and Azerbaijani crowd and to your fellow brainwashed Istanbul Armenians.

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