A Blueprint for Diaspora Representation in Negotiations with Turkey over Reparations

The Armenian Weekly (June 1, 2013)

In the course of almost a century, Armenian institutions’ and individuals’ various stances on Turkey and Genocide recognition have hardened into maximalist positions. For Armenian maximalists, anything short of a full and complete apology, full and complete restitution of the stolen and expropriated property, as well as full reparations, is to be dismissed as nothing but smoke screens or deliberate attempts by the Turkish state to mislead Armenians and non-Armenians alike. This maximalism is understandable and unsurprising in the face of consistent Turkish negationism. It also blinds to nuances in the extremely complex world of Turkish politics, reducing it to zero-sum games and black-and-white dualities. It prevents Armenians from seeing the subtleties in Turkey’s political scene that may still nudge the Turkish state towards coming to terms with the Armenians and the Genocide, a problem that has been nagging it acutely for the last 50 years, increasingly tarnishing its image and violently contradicting its own historical narrative.

Certainly, at this point it is not clear that this approach will push Turkey to acknowledge the Genocide. Denying the Armenian Genocide has become a recurring, growing embarrassment for well-read Turkish officials, including President Abdullah Gül, Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu, and Culture Minister Ömer Çelik. So massive is the body of testimonies and evidence on the Genocide that the Turkish state is now resorting to petty technicalities and sophisms to deny it, much like embarrassed Catholic priests might today if they were still forced to reject the fact that the Earth orbits the Sun, or had Pope John Paul II not apologized for the persecution of Galileo 350 years earlier.

For reasons that are outside the scope of this article, Turkey has a number of compelling motives for settling the Genocide claims and reaching an understanding with the Armenians. There is a possibility that this may happen soon or at an unexpected moment, which would catch Armenians off guard; for, who would speak on behalf of Armenians should Turkey express readiness tomorrow–literally tomorrow–to engage in dialogue and negotiations?

Below is a very basic blueprint proposed only for negotiations with Turkey. It does not purport to set up a permanent Diaspora-wide representative body or some kind of pan-Armenian Congress. The Diaspora General Assembly outlined here would be empowered solely with establishing principles and a course of action for representing the diaspora’s interests at the negotiations with Turkey. Over the decades, there have been several proposals in this regard; this draft is an attempt to contribute to this pool of ideas, in the hope that eventually a structure along these lines will soon materialize.

Today, the Armenian Diaspora has a plethora of separate—and, for a long time, especially in the Cold War years, rival—organizations that, after a lifetime of service to the community, and free from the accountability as well as the checks and balances that come with democratic organizations, have often developed a sense of entitlement and self-righteousness, as they have helped build from scratch thriving communities after the Armenian nation came very close to extinction. Still, that does not help to create consensus, as every Armenian who has been active in the community knows.

An alternative scenario is one that came close to materializing, with Armenia—presumably under foreign pressure—negotiating directly with Turkey, in the now practically defunct protocols that would have compromised the Diaspora’s demands and interests in any negotiation on Genocide recognition and reparations. In this scenario, the Diaspora—and especially independent diasporan individuals, with no affiliation to any organization—would be excluded. Independent Armenians would also be left out in case of secret negotiations, which is another possibility.

In 1977, at the height of the attacks by Armenian militants against Turkish diplomats as well as ASALA’s terror campaign, there were secret conversations in Switzerland between a Turkish delegation, headed by then-Turkish Foreign Minister İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil, and a delegation of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, or the Tashnagtsagan Party. A person directly involved in these negotiations said the Turkish side had approached the ARF to propose a dialogue. To its credit, the ARF (according to this person) suggested that the two other main Diaspora political organizations, the Ramgavars and Hunchakians, be a party to conversations that might have critical importance for the Armenian nation. For a number of reasons, nothing came out of this meeting during which, in broad lines, the Turkish side asked the Armenians about their expectations on reparations. The Turkish delegation also warned the Diaspora Armenian political leadership to help stop the attacks on Turkish diplomats and targets, saying that if Turkey wanted, it could wipe out the entire party and community leadership.

Those were other times, with a Soviet Armenia deprived of sovereign rights. In this time and place, there would be no justification for secret negotiations. Every Armenian individual, regardless of affiliation, is entitled to have a vote and a voice in the matter of Genocide recognition and reparation negotiations with Turkey. If the Diasporan Armenian representation were limited to the Diaspora establishment, it would not be representative. It would further create the risk of traditional parties monopolizing negotiations in a matter of national importance, excluding independent voices within Armenian communities. Hence, a democratic model needs to be devised.

Armenians need to speak with one voice when negotiating with Turkey. That does not mean there should not be a diversity of opinions among Armenians. It means, by the time the Armenian delegation sits at the table with Turkey, the Diaspora should have reached a consensus on its stance through a democratic process. This article is the draft of a blueprint for such a process that aims to broaden representation as much as possible, giving voice to each individual Armenian in a matter of national importance, which cannot and must not be left only to Diaspora institutions and political parties.


General principles

1) Diaspora communities and individuals shall constitute a bicameral General Assembly—set up solely for the purpose of writing a Charter and electing a delegation to represent the Diaspora in negotiations with Turkey, as part of an Armenian delegation led by the Republic of Armenia—that will be independent of all existing Armenian organizations. The Diaspora General Assembly for Negotiations with Turkey on Genocide Recognition and Reparations will not have the power to address or discuss any other issue that is not strictly related to negotiations with Turkey on Genocide recognition and reparations. This means it will not have the power to address foreign policy issues, such as Turkey’s sanctions against Armenia over the Karabagh War, that pertain to the Republic of Armenia’s government, or any other issue that falls outside its narrowly defined purview.

As in most democracies, the bicameral structure is necessary to make up for the imbalances that would create an excessive bias for the larger communities—including the U.S., France, Lebanon, Argentina, and others—to the detriment of smaller ones, such as Chile, Ethiopia, India, Israel, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The peculiar case of the Armenian community of Istanbul needs to be addressed separately.

Armenian individuals and all Armenian organizations, including the churches—Apostolic, as well as Catholic and Evangelical—that functioned in the Ottoman Empire until at least 1915, and that still exist today, will be represented in the upper house of such a General Assembly.

The bicameral Congress model suits the needs of such pan-Armenian body perfectly. Each Diasporan Armenian community would be entitled to proportional representation according to its number of registered constituents in the lower house, or House of Representatives. A formula needs to be agreed on; for example, one representative per 1,000 constituents. Communities with fewer than 1,000 constituents (such as Venezuela, Mexico, and Ethiopia, for example) may automatically be entitled to at least two representatives. An upper house, or Senate, with two representatives each per community, plus two representatives from each Armenian organization that functioned in the Ottoman Empire in 1915, would make up for the heavier influence the larger communities would have in the lower house. The House and the Senate would roughly have the same faculties they do in representative democracies.
2) Every Diasporan Armenian would be authorized to vote and to run as a representative in the General Assembly. Age requirements, as well as all other voting requirements, should be universal for all Diaspora communities solely for the purpose of the Diaspora General Assembly. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, including those who live outside of Armenia, will not be entitled to participate in any capacity in the Diaspora General Assembly, as they shall be represented by the Republic of Armenia in negotiations with Turkey over Genocide recognition and reparations.

Organizing the vote will require a joint effort by the community organizations, setting up all the necessary regulations and controls to ensure a fair vote.

3) The requirements to prove Armenian descent may be based on those required by the Armenian state to grant dual Armenian citizenship to persons born outside of Armenia. Given the difficulties that may arise for proofing Armenian descent in the diaspora four generations after the Genocide, proof of Armenian descent (with at least one great-grandparent of Armenian origin) should include at least one of the following:

a) a baptismal certificate from the Armenian Church or from an Armenian church of any denomination, stating the Armenian identity;

b) a baptismal certificate of one of the parents from the Armenian Church stating the Armenian identity;

c) a birth certificate from a country that states the Armenian nationality and/or identity;

d) a birth certificate from a country that states that one of the parents’ nationality and/or identity is Armenian;

e) proof of attendance and/or graduation from an Armenian school;

f) proof of participation or membership in any Armenian church of any denomination or any Armenian organization;

g) any other proof or testimony that demonstrates descent beyond reasonable doubt.

4) The Armenian delegation in negotiations with Turkey will be led by the Republic of Armenia, as the sole inheritor of the Armenian states that preceded it. The Diaspora representation would be subordinated to the Republic of Armenia delegation. While the Diaspora’s claims are equally important and deserve to be heard, Armenia has a critical stake in any negotiations with Turkey as a next-door neighbor, with vital interests at play, including defense. This is especially true when this next-door neighbor has common interests with another enemy-neighbor flanking Armenia on the east, Azerbaijan, with which the country is still in a state of war, despite a relatively fragile cease-fire.

No diasporan demand can or must compromise Armenia’s vital interests. The homeland’s interests override everything. Armenia will have the final say in any negotiations with Turkey. The interests and the security of the Republic of Armenia, as the surviving entity of the Armenian homeland, come first and foremost, and are of paramount importance.

5) The Republic of Armenia will have the last word on matters pertaining to territorial claims on the lands of Western Armenia and Cilicia; all decisions pertaining to treaties between Turkey and Armenia; as well as all other treaties that concern or affect relations between both states. All of the issues regarding sovereign territorial claims will be strictly outside the purview of the Diaspora General Assembly.

6) In close coordination with the Armenian state, the Diaspora General Assembly will draft a Charter establishing the principles of negotiations with Turkey and the matters to negotiate with Turkey, including but not limited to:

a) recognition of the Genocide by Turkey (and matters pertaining to wording and announcement, what is admissible and what is not);

b) reparations for each Armenian individual killed, displaced, or missing during the 1915 massacres and deportations from the Armenian provinces of the Ottoman Empire as well as Istanbul and other locations in the Ottoman Empire (and how to account for them, and devise a formula to calculate reparations for the loss of life);

c) restitution of lost properties and compensation (and what to do in those rare instances where Turkish courts have returned properties to deed holders and already settled insurance claims).

7) Setting up a physical space for such a General Assembly will be costly. Armenian organizations are in no position to embark on such a costly endeavor. Thanks to available technology, it is more than feasible to make this a virtual General Assembly, with sessions carried out via video-conference.

8) This Assembly shall remain in session until negotiations begin with Turkey, when it would elect a deputation to represent the diaspora in the delegation of the Republic of Armenia. The Assembly shall enter into a recess at the start of negotiations with Turkey and for as long as the negotiations continue.

9) The Assembly shall be renewed every four years in worldwide general elections.

10) The Assembly shall dissolve itself when and if a final settlement is reached with Turkey on Genocide recognition and reparations.


As noted above, this proposal is just the draft of a blueprint. It is an individual initiative and it is presented here with the hope that it may set up the basis for a more thorough and comprehensive Armenian Diaspora-wide representative body that will help to negotiate a matter of vital importance to the Armenian nation.


Avedis Hadjian is a writer and editor born in Aleppo, Syria, and raised in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from an early age. He is the author of the forthcoming book A Secret Nation: The Hidden Armenians of Turkey. He has worked as an editor and correspondent in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, China, and South America, and has written for the Los Angeles Times, CNN, Bloomberg News, and other newspapers and news sites. He was educated in Buenos Aires and in Cambridge, England, and lives in New York.


Avedis Hadjian

Avedis Hadjian is a writer and editor born in Aleppo, Syria, and raised in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from an early age. He is the author of the forthcoming book A Secret Nation: The Hidden Armenians of Turkey. He has worked as an editor and correspondent in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, China, and South America, and has written for the Los Angeles Times, CNN, Bloomberg News, and other newspapers and news sites. He was educated in Buenos Aires and in Cambridge, England, and lives in New York.


  1. Fantastic article here about Armenian – Turkish reconciliation, gives me reason to think, or at least hope, that Armenians and Turks can come together, based on truth and justice, to work towards a better future.

    Even though it’s perhaps easier to curse the Turks and make near impossible demands from them, I think it more practical and in the end far better for we Armenians to find ways to get the Turks to realize and accept that there was an Armenian Genocide and that by doing this they will be the better for it. So for example, we need to be recalling the numerous stories of Turkish people that helped Armenians during the Genocide. These are real heroes for which Turks could be proud and that provides an alternative model to the current denialist propaganda.

    Most would agree that any sane person, before agreeing to do something (recognition of the Armenian Genocide by Turks in this case), wants to know what the consequences of agreeing to that something are. For example, say a cop pulls you over for some traffic violation and when you ask how much the ticket is going to cost, the cop shrugs and says, “I don’t know… could be 10 dollars, or maybe 100 dollars, or maybe a million dollars”. Are you going to sign the ticket? Certainly not willingly. As such, we Armenians need to approach reconcialiation between Armenians and Turks in a way that can benefit both peoples. Imagine for example a scenario whereby lands taken from Armenians during the Genocide were returned to Armenians (be it the Armenian Church or family decendants). It’s not difficult then to further imagine Armenian dispora money pouring into Turkey, and yes paying taxes to the Turkish government. A renewed Armenian presence could even help stabilize Turkish – Kurdish relations in the area. The result is a win – win for all parties. What a world that could be, one where Turks and Armenians work together for mutual benefit.

    • “It’s not difficult then to further imagine Armenian dispora money pouring into Turkey, and yes paying taxes to the Turkish government.”
      I think you’re in the extreme minority here. From my experiences here and elsewhere I have the impression that its genocide recognition/apology + mass territory transfer (eastern Turkey) or bust.

    • Good article and a nesesary step to negotiate with Turkey.
      But not in a million year Armenians are going back to live unther Turkish rule. In the end of all negotiations we should get back all agreed upon territories and annexed them to present Armenia. I think the Kurdish people should be also involved in negotiations, when territories are being discussed so we don’t have future problem with another neighbor.

  2. I like the principle of Idea, but are we so diluted of that could be play by Turkey to reconcile issues that concerns Azerbayjan around “Artzakh” and If there anyone has tried to understand that is the unification of West and East Turks by giving what Armenia want in return for giving up the Artzakh ,some people may don’t know that not only heritage of Artzakh belongs to Armenia but the valuable Minerals that is under Artzakh ( oil ,Gas) ,these are things no one talks about.. just let us Armenian people know if such assets are true and what will be result of those assets at negotiations?

  3. We have commemorated the Armenian Genocide for decades wherever there is an Armenian community
    with very little accomplishment thus far towards the final settlement between Armenians and the neighboring Turks. This “blueprint” is, indeed , a good one to start the process towards a peaceful
    settlement between our two people replacing the daily raging hatred towards each other.

  4. we should never settle final settlement,apart from land and financial settlement the government should be liable for the future pay as well and all that for a funds for returning Historic Armenian Funds.to be used in the future

  5. Well look what we have here. Someone with an actual plan. And an actual plan that seems to be well thought out and conceivable. Agree or disagree, things like this are the way to move forward, not waiting for a massive geopolitical shift or a major disaster to strike Turkey. Well done Mr. Hadjian, however your plan seems to assume that Turkey will be in a position where it wants to negotiate.

  6. There is an old Turkish saying translated says “do not shake your legs before you sit on the horse”. When Turkey accepts then we must allow Armenia to deal with the matter and the diaspora should not get involved.

  7. My G’Father was Armenian from Diarbekir & Great G’Father was a community leader & DEoctor who was ambushed & beheaded while delivering a baby. Please keep me updated. May justice prevail!JJ Boyajian Howard

  8. I concur with RVDV – here is an actual plan based on democratic (pan Armenian) principles from which we can at least have a reasonable discussion. Of course as they say, “the devil is in the details”.

    How those details could be worked through will, I imagine, not be to the complete satisfaction of Armenians, e.g. Armenia extended to the Black and Mediteranean seas, trillions of dollars transfered from Turkey to Armenia, mass deportation (peaceful) of existing Turks westward out of historic Armenian lands, and of course, the Kurdish issue. To actually accomplish the Armenian Cause – Hye Tad then, in it’s purest sense, is not so easy.

    What then – should we just wait for some major geopolitical shift where Turkey crumbles? Not likely to happen anytime soon. Instead, it seems we must accept the reality of a negotiated settlement where neither Turks or Armenians get everything they want, but for which both peoples can live with. Most importantly though, we Armenians need to re-establish our presence in historical western Armenia, get our feet firmly back on the land of our ancestors. If we have to share that land with Turks and Kurds then, with the right safeguards, so be it. At least we will have a presence there again. To quote what a Kurd at lake Van told a group of us Armenians on tour there some years back – it went something like, “this place was much better when you Armenians were here”.

    • "it seems we must accept the reality of a negotiated settlement where neither Turks or Armenians get everything they want, but for which both peoples can live with."

      This has been, essentially, what I've been saying as well when it comes to a possible resolution of this issue. However, again, the typical response I've seen to a proposition such as this goes something like "if someone broke into your house, killed your family, and then lived in your house, would you negoitate with them?" Well ok, but the status quo between Turkey and Armenia suits Turks just fine, and no one is forcing, or has been successful in compelling Turkey to apologize or pay reparations. A majority of Turks either deny the AG, don't deny the killings but deny that they consitiute a genocide, or simply don't care. These people won't come to YOU for a negotiation. Is it fair? No. But it is what it is. Make the best of it or sit in your idealist corner fuming at Turkey. I know most Turks will hope Armenians take the second path. 

    • RVDV:

      if you were the chief negotiator for the Turkish side, what would you offer Armenians, i.e. your best offer. 

      what would you expect from Armenians in return.

    • Avery: Land wise- Mt. Ararat, and the province of Agri which surrounds it. I’d return all properties seized and stolen, and either pay for their repairs, or if they do not exist, compensate them with money. I would exclude homes from this and just compensate those monetarily, with heavy interest of course. There is of course the compensation for the people killed. I’d look at what Germany paid Israel, adjust it for 1.5 million and not 6, and then double that amount for 100 years of denial. Finally, in eastern Turkey, I’d set up certain autonomous regions that have their own local governments so that if there are Armenians who would wish to return could live relatively free of government oppression within Turkey. Along with this, I’d also end the economic blockade of Armenia. In return, all I would ask of Armenia is to drop its land claims on eastern Turkey.

  9. Mr. Hadjian. Thank you for your proposal, an initial document to build from. All above comments and others need to be discussed and debated once an Organizing Committee and a General Assembly is formed for this Holly Cause for all Armenians. It is high time that we listen to each other and unite with ONE VOICE!!!!!

  10. I think what could happen post-2015 is, Turkey can pull out of a couple of provinces, also, Georgia can join in the negotiations, as well as the Kurds, because most lands claimed by Armenia have Kurds in it. Things have to be peaceful and as non-violent as possible, if we get involved in a population exchange between Muslims and Christians. Also, Turkey could probably at the most, offer autonomy to the Kurdish regions. (Plan 1)

    Or, what can happen is Turkey can create a autnomous Kurdish region via a federal republic, where Armenians can live in the Kurdish regions, with a Kurdish controlled government, or a government with shared Armenian-Kurdish ruling party. (Part 2)

    Or, what can also happen is Turkey can change it's name to "Anatolian Republic" where you have Christians, Muslims and Jews and there can be a way to find a formal language. (Part 3)

    There needs to be negotations where Turks, Kurds, Armenians and others in the region live side to side in a peaceful manner if you ask me. We have to make sure that both sides are not-too hardline with each other, as well as maybe there should be a possiblity that Turkey will have to make painful sacrifices concerning Turkish-Armenian ties. (Part 4)

    My views are going to slightly shift concerning Turkish-Kurdish-Armenian issues nowadays, because there is a big revolution to topple and ban the Dictatorial Muslim Brotherhood Wahhabi Extremeist AKP and hopefully the revolution will be taken over by liberal-left Wing Secularists rather then right-wing Secularists. (I am not saying Far-Left people, either).

  11.  In 1977, at the height of the attacks by Armenian militants against Turkish diplomats as well as ASALA’s terror campaign???? If, as the author posits, ASALA was conducting a "terror campaign" , then who were the Armenian militants conducting a "non-terror" campaign? I guess the author would label Monte Melkonian as terrorist.

  12. I say this is admirable and brave. It makes the reader consider the possibilities.However, I present to you the reality as mentioned by others… Turkey does not need to negotiate! Before we plan our committees and congresses let us consider how and what will make Turkey so uncomfortable which would put her in a condition conducive to make her understand it would be in her interest to resolve this issue rather than carry on the denial campaign, rather successfully I must say, for the past 100 years??? Once we decide what are the conditions to bring this reality check within Turkey, then we have started making headway in resolving “our and their” problem.
    Now that I was given a soap box, let me expound for a minute. A campaign of free literature offerings of documented books, reports and Ottoman Government documents… nothing written by Armenians… but by others…translated into Turkish and distributed through the Internet and institutions, universities throughout Turkey discussing the AG. Let us educate the Turkish people because I know that very many DON’T KNOW the facts. That is a first step also in the right direction.

    • Regardless of that, Armenians and especially the diaspora need to be prepared if the possibility of negotiations arose. Currently there is not one single structure to represent the diaspora’s collective will, and developing one will be very difficult, which makes it even more compelling to start sooner rather than later. If Turkey said let’s have a talk, the Diaspora would be left at the mercy of its establishment, which may have done a lot of good things but who don’t respond to anyone but to their members, or not even, only to their leadership. You would have mostly the Dashnaks representing the diaspora, and they are not known for seeking consensus. They’ll go by their own book as they always do, without giving account to anyone but themselves or a few among them. A number of factors have to combine for Turkey to recognize the Genocide. I think the limits of Armenian educational and outreach efforts have already been tested, and it can be said a lot has been achieved. Still, no amount of further publicity is likely to move Turkey towards recognition, and in this age and place, only people who don’t want to know about the Genocide don’t.

  13. RE: “Thanks to available technology, it is more than feasible to make this a virtual General Assembly, with sessions carried out via video-conference.”

    Presumably many, if not all participants, will be using VOIP technology to participate in such a video conference. And become an easy prey to hackers. FYI, Turkish programmers have a very high scored hackers amongst them. How one can guarantee the protection against that to prevent interruptions of the Assembly?

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