Manjikian: Becoming Extinct? Armenian Schools in the Diaspora

I was born in arid land, a country where Armenian schools are as scarce as snow. Consequently, I was homeschooled by my mother with textbooks she had brought with her from Beirut.

These lessons weren’t exactly my favorite way to spend time over the weekend because it interfered with my play. However, as much as I dreaded temporarily leaving my amusement behind as a 7-year-old, I recall my mother’s enthusiasm as she taught me how to read and spell in Armenian. With excitement in her voice, she would tell me that soon, “When we move to Canada, you can go to Armenian school there.” I now understand that she wasn’t one to take Armenian schools anywhere in the world for granted.

Like many Armenian families, we emigrated, again. Fast-forward to Montreal, where a full-time Armenian school became part of my new daily routine. Like any transition, it was challenging at first. The second-grade class that I joined was already quite advanced in the language. With the help of a dedicated Armenian teacher, I gradually caught up. In the process, I soon realized that my mother’s Armenian tutoring, which I had once dreaded, had been invaluable.

Although the Armenian curriculum was demanding, I came to yet another realization after I graduated: Armenian school had exposed me to literary gems, genres, and analytical thinking, historical facts, cultural relics, and intricacies of an obscure Indo-European language—which I could not have unearthed on my own. In retrospect, my most interesting exposure to Armenian knowledge was at the high school level.

When I visited Armenia, our homeland, for the first time, I felt as though my appreciation of the country’s cultural and historical wealth was accentuated by the knowledge that was transmitted to me over the years at Armenian school.

It wasn’t perfect, and some days, especially towards the end, it felt suffocating. Nevertheless, I have many fond memories of attending an Armenian elementary and high school, where a “home”-like atmosphere permeated. And to this day, some of my closest friends are from Armenian school.

Unfortunately, a sense of widespread apathy has taken over the alumni, materialized in our inability to mobilize and create an active alumni association.

Will this indifference eventually lead to the closure of schools? Potentially, but it won’t be the only factor. In August 2010, it was reported that what remains of the Kaloustian School in Cairo is being merged with another Armenian academic institution, the Noubarian School. The Kaloustian School was established in 1854 and has had as many as 800 students. The current student population of 45 cannot sustain the school.

The reasons boil down to decreasing numbers of Armenians living in Egypt, as a result of recent emigration waves, families opting for non-Armenian schools, an Armenian community that is now predominantly Arabic-speaking, and an increase in mixed marriages. In a sense, these realities are linked to being scattered in a diaspora, but as I have argued in previous columns, they do not always have detrimental effects. They are part of the dynamism and regeneration of a diaspora.

The merger of the schools in Cairo may be a way of salvaging both institutions, though it is undeniable that an academic institution that once thrived is essentially defunct today. The Melkonian Educational Institute in Cyprus suffered a similar fate, closing its doors in 2005. On the other hand, the Armenian College and Philanthropic Academy in Calcutta, India, established in 1821, experienced the reverse: After experiencing a difficult period, it was revived in 1999 when the administration of the school was transferred to the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin.

A friend of mine recently expressed regret over the fate of the Kaloustian School in Egypt. She insisted that we should focus on repopulating Armenia and improving the country, namely the schools there, as the future of the diaspora looks grim. The numbers in Egypt are telling. This once bustling diasporic hub in Africa used to count around 50,000-60,000 Armenians. Today, the community counts all but 3,000.

Indifference and assimilation may be some of the causes behind school closures throughout the diaspora, but migratory patterns are also an important factor. The population may be moving out of Egypt, but Armenian populations are moving into other cities, namely in North America. Repopulating and “returning” to Armenia is a passionate ideal with complexities, which I do not delve into here. In reality, however, emigration from Armenia is at a high rate, while the number of diasporans repatriating to Armenia remains low.

Our fate is in our hands. We have obligations to fulfill both towards Armenia and the diaspora. We cannot neglect one for the sake of the other, because they do co-exist. Furthermore, we must respect the effort, time, and faith that have gone into establishing Armenian schools throughout the diaspora, in cities such as Syndey, Boston, Los Angeles, Beirut, Marseilles, and in the Armenian-Syrian enclave of Kessab, to name but a few.

Nevertheless, it is essential that these institutions adapt with current demands and curriculums depending on where they are located in order to allow upcoming generations to keep the schools in Armenia and in the diaspora. The closure of Kaloustian is not merely Cairo’s community’s loss, but Armenia’s and the diaspora’s loss as a whole. After all, this long-standing institution has prepared cohorts of students, who not only became central figures, intellectuals, and leaders throughout the diaspora, but who are also contributing to Armenia’s development today.

Many realizations later—since being homeschooled in Armenian, graduating from an Armenian school, visiting Armenia for the first time, and visiting other Armenian schools around the world—I am still a proud product of my Armenian school in Montreal.

Armenian schools nurture and develop our ties and allegiances to Armenia, though more and more dialogue with the world around us should also be prioritized. We cannot afford to take these academic institutions for granted.

Lalai Manjikian

Lalai Manjikian

Dr. Lalai Manjikian is a humanities professor at Vanier College in Montreal. Her teaching and research interests are in the areas of immigration and refugee studies, media representations of migration, migrant narratives and diaspora studies. She is the author of Collective Memory and Home in the Diaspora: The Armenian Community in Montreal (2008). Lalai’s articles have been published in a number of newspapers and journals including The Armenian Weekly, Horizon Weekly, 100 Lives (The Aurora Prize), the Montreal Gazette, and Refuge. A former Birthright Armenia participant (2005), over the years, Lalai has been active in volunteering both within the Armenian community in Montreal and the local community at large, namely engaged in immigrant and refugee integration. She previously served as a qualitative researcher on the Armenian Diaspora Survey in Montreal. Lalai also serves as a board member for the Foundation for Genocide Education. She holds a PhD in Communication Studies from McGill University (2013).


  1. Suggestion, can Armenian language, history and more be offered at all our churches, following church services – lunch + classes + discussions, for young and old… all conducted by volunteers… Manooshag

  2. Ms. Manjikian seems to be totally uninformed or has reasons to ignore the real reasons why AGBU chose to close down the Melkonian Educational Institute in Cyprus. The only Armenian boarding school in the diaspora, that could accept students from all different countries. The only High School in the European Union, where thousands of Armenian families have established residency in Europe in the last few decades. Where it would have been a school that would have received sizable monetary help from the European Union and the Cypriot government. It is not because of lack of students, the annual enrollment could very easily exceed 1,000 if the will and the commitment was there by AGBU.
    The Melkonian brothers are turning in their graves daily, knowing that their donation (the largest sum to this day for AGBU), to our nation has become the pet peeve to a few leaders of AGBU to do as they please without consulting with anyone. Hayabahbanoum is in full swing!!!

  3. I am so sadden to see that we can not keep our schools open, but into marriges happen because Armenian men prefer the western skiney and blond women to us Armenian beauties.

  4. “The Melkonian Educational Institute in Cyprus suffered a similar fate, closing its doors in 2005. On the other hand, the Armenian College and Philanthropic Academy in Calcutta, India, established in 1821, experienced the reverse”
    The reason is Melkonian can be sold whereas the school in India can not be sold.
    If one can find a way to send students to India, where there are 3 or 4 Armenian families left, we are being asked to believe that we can not find enough student to attend Melkonian in Cyprus, a European Union member country.
    I guess 1+1=3

  5. I think the issue/problem is much bigger than educational.

    To me the real problem is the disengagement of Armenia-Diaspora.

    The future of the Armenian language is in Armenia. That’s why I do think that Diaspora should put MUCH MORE pressure on Armenian authorities (in general) so that the country would become livable for both sides.

    The Diaspora puts too much effort on Genocide recognition, which is important, but it takes away the attention from other equally important issues.

    I already suggested to make Western Armenian a 2nd official language in Armenia.

  6. HYe Varaz, I agree about the language issue.  Here in the USA there were many ‘dialects’ too… the southerners, the westerners, and more where all the same English language was spoken in a distincly differently… but with the advent of the television, these various dialects have been mostly lessened, if not disappeared.  Too, of the Armenian language/dialects, as I see it, all these dialects were created by the mountainous separations of Armenia… For example, the Armenians of the Kapan area speak a distinctly different dialect.  What is the dominate dialect of the Armenians in Yerevan?
    Well, today it is now more so, actually the dialects are further spread across the world in our Armenian diaspora… So, as a Dikranagerdsi, (which is becoming less and less spoken)  I am not understood, nor am I able to converse with a Haiastansi, or most other unique Armenian dialects. Yet, to communicate more freely… any suggestions? Of course the pursuit of the Turkish Genocide of the Armenian nation is mostly accomplished in the English language which is spoken the world over. Manooshag

  7. P.S. But, come to think of it, haven’t we always had the ‘krah-par (written word)?  That was used by highly educated, the clergy… the other dialects were still ‘local’ as they are today?  Manooshag

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