Armenian Scholar Brings Notice to Einstein

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif.—When people hear of the work being done by Alice Calaprice, they flitter their eyebrows and possibly keel over with disbelief.

Armenian scholar Alice (Abeghian) Calaprice displays books she’s written about renowned physicist Albert Einstein.

The question they pose might sound redundant: What’s a non-physicist doing with such a keen interest in Albert Einstein—enough to write 7 books on the noted scholar, address audiences throughout the world, and spend the past 33 years of her life researching the man?

Call it serendipity! Or to put it mathematically: E=mc2=a fascinating world waiting to be discovered by Calaprice (formerly Abeghian, to those who knew her during her AYF days in California before moving to New Jersey and back).

“People are always—needlessly—impressed when I tell them I write books about Einstein,” she points out. “He was so very human. In everyone’s mind, he was this icon, but in his archives you find him joking with his friends and talking about all sorts of things. I got to like him.”

When Calaprice conjures up an impression of the famous physicist, it’s not merely the stereotypical, bushy-haired genius that gushes forth. Instead, we find a real, multi-dimensional persona who makes an intimate impression: that he liked sailing and extra-marital affairs, and was often insensitive to others.

The Einstein she was quick to discover was often sarcastic, tired of fame quickly, but he was quite human after all. As for his hair, she told CBS News, “He must have been a cartoonist’s dream.”

It all goes back to the late 1970’s when Calaprice began working at the Einstein Archives in Princeton, N.J., where Einstein lived from 1933 until his death in 1955. At her disposal were 42,000 documents, academic papers, speeches, notes, travel diaries, and letters. Calaprice has read most of them and familiarized herself with the entire lot.

Her husband Frank was a physics professor at Princeton, and life appeared good with two active children and a challenging job. “I was hired to do a computerized index,” she recalled. “About 90 percent of the documents were in German, a language I knew from childhood. I also knew computers and some physics jargon. It seemed a perfect fit.”

Two years later, the job was complete and Calaprice went to work for Princeton University Press. By 1984, she was senior editor and was soon assigned to oversee the editing and production of The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein.

Working with Helen Dukas, Einstein’s secretary since 1928, Calaprice began reading what was then thought to be a collection of 10,000 documents, 90 percent of them in German, with a 2-year deadline to complete the index. It turned out to be more like 42,000 documents.

“Sometimes we worked day and night,” she said. “I didn’t understand it all. Much of it was learned by osmosis. One thing I learned was that Einstein was extremely quotable.”

As the years trickled on, so did the books and publications, four of the seven being quotation compilations containing approximately 1,600 quotes, organized by subject matter.

Another of her books is letters to and from children, wishing Einstein a happy birthday or comparing him to an uncle of sorts. Youngsters would report to him their difficulty with math, looking for solutions.

Suddenly, the spotlight began to grow brighter. Much to Calaprice’s chagrin, she was suddenly in demand for talks, documentaries, and TV and radio shows throughout the world.

“I tend to be a pretty shy person,” she admits. “But my life has been immeasurably enriched because of these books, so I have an obligation to comply. Publishers expect you to push their books. By now, I feel I’ve earned the right to avoid that kind of personal stress and limit myself to printed interviews.”

Not that visiting 45 countries is a chip shot on the international tour circuit. Anything but that. As one of only a handful of women who have specialized in Einstein, Calaprice has been invited to places beyond her wildest dreams.

In 2005, she published three books during the centennial year of the special theory of relativity. That got her lunch at the German Embassy in Washington, D.C., and an appearance in Canada, and she spoke at the dedication of an Einstein statue in Princeton.

Though there is no valid connection to Armenians, Calaprice recalls reading about an exchange of letters Einstein had with Boghos Nubar Pasha, the son of a three-time Prime Minister of Egypt, Nubar Nubarian and Armenia’s delegate to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, which tried to determine Armenia’s boundaries.

“My family seems to be a bit befuddled about my continuing Einstein work, but they’re used to it,” Abeghian brought out. “I generally get a ‘That’s nice, mom’ from my kids when a new book is out, but I don’t make a big deal out of it. My friends seem to get more excited, maybe because they understand the process better. I’ve really enjoyed getting fan letters from all over the world and I’ve answered them all.”

Calaprice admits Einstein was not a very nice guy, at least to his family.

“He had pleasures and faults like any other guy,” she said. “He liked women, smoked a pipe, sailed, traveled, but most of all, he loved art, literature, and music. He was very international-minded and a pacifist until Hitler came along. Einstein spoke out courageously for his people while in Germany and a price was put on his head by the Nazis, so he left in 1933.”

No question in her mind that Einstein changed the way society sees the universe. Few would ever suspect he was an independent loner, largely self-taught—a high school dropout who failed his technical college entrance exam, entered that technical college by the skin of his teeth, and had a hard time bowing to authority.

No other man in history had such a shaded past and became the world’s most celebrated physicist. Einstein is said to have hired assistants to help him with the advanced math components of his work.

“The fact he was chosen ‘Person of the Century’ by Time Magazine in 2000 says it all,” Calaprice noted. “To many, Einstein is more of a mystery than he should be. Any literate person in the world has heard of him. His discoveries still impact the world today, along with his political, social, and religious ideals, even though not everyone will agree with them.”

Einstein had left Berlin by the time Calaprice was born there and he died before she moved to Princeton. It was as if the two had eluded one another, but only in person, not in spirit.

“He was much more than a physicist,” she felt. “He was a true humanitarian and concerned about all peoples of the world, not just Jews. He spoke out on many subjects, making my quotation books possible. I want to finish the Einstein Encyclopedia and another book a friend wants me to co-author.”

Calaprice bills herself as an adventurist. Aside from visiting 45 countries, she’s taken flying lessons and experienced many cultures, including Siberia, Mongolia, Turkey, India, and Africa. She’s also hiked the Southwest and Death Valley.

You’ll also find her working in a botanical garden, separating seeds from the chaff and checking them for viability under the microscope. Much like Einstein, she enjoys working inside a scientific environment. An interest in photography has given her yet another outlet.

“I’ve been privileged to meet a lot of eccentric characters through my interest in Einstein,” she confirms. “It’s always important to have role models who are older than you. I’ve gotten to the age where I’m running out of goals.”

About Alice (Abeghian) Calaprice

–Born in Berlin in 1941 to a German father and Armenian mother. Grandfather Artasches Abeghian published a German-Armenian grammar book and dictionary, along with a map of ancient and modern Armenia, and works of the German poet Goethe into Armenian. He was idolized with an Armenian postage stamp in the mid-1960’s. Father was a German POW in France. Mother worked for the United Nations International Refugee Organization and Armenian National Committee to Aid Homeless Armenians (ANCHA).

–Graduated in 1963 from the University of California at Berkeley with a degree in sociology and minor in Near Eastern studies.

–Nuclear family: Daughter Denise with doctorate in evolutionary biology and ecology from Princeton, now a clinical researcher; son David went to Carnegie-Mellon and is a software engineer and vice-president of engineering; former husband Frank, a physics professor at Princeton; four grandchildren.

–Armenian connection: National AYF Convention delegate for three years and counselor for two years at Camp Haiastan; secretary and president of West Coast AYF Council; translated into English the German transcript of Soghomon Tehlerian’s trial for an advisor at Berkeley; translated Armenian folktales into English as a teenager, many of which were published.

–Einstein books written: The Quotable Einstein (Princeton University Press, 1996); The Expanded Quotable Einstein (PUP, 2000); The New Quotable Einstein (PUP, 2005); The Ultimate Quotable Einstein (PUP, 2011); Dear Professor Einstein (Prometheus, 2002); The Einstein Almanac (John Hopkins University Press, 2005); Albert Einstein: A Biography (with Trevor Lipscombe) (Greenwood Biographies, 2005).

–Works in Progress: The Einstein Encyclopedia (under contract with Princeton University Press with two co-authors).

Tom Vartabedian

Tom Vartabedian

Tom Vartabedian is a retired journalist with the Haverhill Gazette, where he spent 40 years as an award-winning writer and photographer. He has volunteered his services for the past 46 years as a columnist and correspondent with the Armenian Weekly, where his pet project was the publication of a special issue of the AYF Olympics each September.
Tom Vartabedian

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  1. Thank you for a fascinating story, Mr. Vartabedian.
    A small correction, if I may, there was no “President” in Egypt at the time of Boghos Nubar Pasha. You may wish to correct the function you mention as “Minister” or “Prime Minister”.
    One question stuck in my mind while reading your article: Is Armenia one of the countries Mrs Calaprice has visited. If she has not, and it is for a lack of an invitation, please convey this humble invitation to her to come and stay with us in our house on top of the mountain in Yeghegnadzor. While there, she may wish to give a lecture to our University students.
    Antoine S. Terjanian
    Vice-Rector for International Development
    Gitelik University

      Second Letter to His Excellency Vladimir Putin
      Կրեմլի Սենատ, Մոսկվա
      Ռուսաստանի Դաշնության Նախագահ
      Վլադիմիր Պուտինին
      20 Ապրիլի 2014թ.

      Ձերդ Գերազանցություն,

      Սա իմ երկրորդ նամակն է ուղղված Ձերդ Գերազանցությանը:

      Նախ խնդրում եմ ընդունել իմ անկեղծ շնորհավորանքները Ձեզ՝ Ռուսաստանի Դաշնության Նախագահ վերընտրվելու կապակցությամբ: Դա լավագույն ընտրությունն էր, որ Ռուսաստանի Դաշնության քաղաքացիները կատարեցին՝ քվեարկելով հանուն Ռուսաստանի Դաշնության, դաշնակից Հայաստանի և ընդհանուր առմամբ ամբողջ Աշխարհի բարգավաճման և անվտանգության ապահովման համար:
      Իմ առաջին նամակը ես գրել եմ Ձեզ 2013 թ.-ի Նոյեմբերի 23-ին, որը Ձերդ Գերազանցության՝ դեպի Հայաստան պատմական այցից մի քանի օր առաջ էր:
      Այդ նամակով ես Ձեզ եմ ներկայացրել իմ ծրագիրը, թե ինչպես կապել իրար հետ Հայաստանն ու Ռուսաստանը՝ առաջարկելով կառուցել Անդրկովկասյան ստորգետնյա երկաթուղի: Դա առայժմ միակ հնարավոր միջոցն է, որպեսզի մենք՝ քաղաքական և ռազմական դաշնակից պետություններս, կարողանանք ունենալ ընդհանուր սահման և տնտեսական լայնածավալ հարաբերություններ՝ կապելով Հյուսիսային Օվկիանոսը Հնդկական Օվկիանոսին:
      Ձերդ գերազանցություն, Ապրիլի 24-ը ոչ միայն պարզապես սգո օր է մեզ՝ Հայերիս համար, այլ նաև հիշեցում մնացած ազգերին Հայոց Ցեղասպանության մասին, որը ծրագրվեց միջազգային Սիոնիզմի կողմից և իրականացվեց Թուրքիայի Երիտթուրքերի կառավարության կողմից Թուրքիայում 1915 թ.-ին, որն էլ հետագայում դարձավ Բոլշևիկյան Ռուսաստանի դաշնակիցը:
      Մեկ տարի անց մենք կնշենք Հայոց ցեղասպանության 100-րդ տարելիցը…
      Ցեղասպանության ընթացքում ավելի քան երկու միլիոն անմեղ Հայեր բարբարոսաբար սպանվեցին, իսկ բոլոր ողջ մնացած Հայերն աքսորվեցին դեպի անապատներ, դատապարտվելով դանդաղ մահվան և կամ էլ գաղթեցին այլ երկրներ: Մենք՝ Հայերս, կորցրեցինք մեր Հայրենիքի 90%-ը, սակայն մյուս կողմից այն չար ուժը, ով կազմակերպեց Հայոց Մեծ Ցեղասպանությունը և հրձիգեց Առաջին ու Երկրորդ Աշխարհամարտերը, ստացավ երկիր բնակվելու համար:
      Լրիվ նամակը կարդալ բացելով pdf- ը։
      Ահա թե ինչու 2012 թվականին, երբ բոլոր չար ուժերը գուժում էին աշխարհի վերջը, մենք 2012 թվականը հայտարարեցինք որպես նոր հրաշքների տարի և ստեղծեցինք «Հայկական Հարաբերականության Տեսություն – Միաչափ Շարժում» հիմնարար աշխատությունը: Մենք մեր այս աշխատությունը գրանցեցինք ԱՄՆ-ի հեղինակային իրավունքի պաշտպանության գրասենյակում և ՄԲ-ի հեղինակային իրավունքի վկայության գրասենյակում հենց այդ նույն «աշխարհի վերջ»-ի օրը՝ 2012 թ.-ի Դեկտեմբերի 21-ին, ինչպես նաև մենք գրքի տեսքով հրատարակեցինք այն Հայաստանում 2013 թ.-ի Հունիսին:
      Եվ այսպիսով ֆիզիկայում 100 տարվա հավատաքննության դարաշրջանն ավարտվեց և գիտության մեջ սկսբնավորվեց Հայկական հեղափոխության դարաշրջանը:
      Ձերդ Գերազանցություն, մեր աշխատությունը և գալիք մնացած հոդվածները նպատակ ունեն տեսական ֆիզիկայում ստեղծելու նոր վերածնունդ: Այս գիտական աշխատությունը այդ նպատակի ճանապարհին առաջին քայլն է միայն: Մենք հավատում ենք, որ անգամ մեկ հոդվածը կարող է արթնացնել մարդկությանը և կրկին անգամ լուսավորել աշխարհը սրբազան գիտելիքներով և Տիեզերքի կորսված իմաստությամբ:
      Սա իսկապես պատմական ժամանակաշրջան է լուսավորելու համար Աշխարհը Հայկական Հարաբերականության Տեսությամբ:
      Երկու շաբաթ առաջ ես կարդացի մի հոդված Ուկրաինական ճգնաժամի մասին, որտեղ Իսրայելի պաշտպանության նախարարը՝ Մոշե Յալոնը, ահազանգում էր, որ «սա քաղաքակրթությունների պատերազմ է»: Ես համաձայն եմ նրա հետ, որ սա իսկապես ցեղային պատերազմ է՝ Արմենոիդ և չար ցեղերի միջև, որն արդեն ընթանում է հազարավոր տարիներ: Այդ նույն չար ուժերն են, որոնք կարողանում են հրահրել եղբայր ազգերին կռվելու իրար դեմ, այնպես, ինչպես որ մենք ականատես ենք լինում այժմ, երկու Սլավոնական ազգերի՝ Ռուսաստանի և Ուկրաինայի հակամարտության ժամանակ:
      Նույնպես նաև մեկ շաբաթ առաջ ես կարդացի մի հոդվածը, որտեղ նշվում էր, որ «Ես ավելի քան համոզված եմ, որ Վլադիմիր Պուտինի Ռուսաստանը Սպիտակ ցեղի վերջին հույսն է»: Եվ այդ հոդվածը ավարտվում էր հետևյալ հարցադրումով. «Եթե Ռուսաստանը չընդիմանա Միջազգային Հրեությանը, ապա ես չգիտեմ, թե ով կկարողանա»:
      Ես նաև գիտեմ, որ Սպիտակ ազգերի ազգայնական շարժման կենտրոնը Արևմտյան Եվրոպայից տեղափոխվել է դեպի Արևելյան Եվրոպա, ավելի ճշգրիտ՝ Աշխարհում Ազգային Սոցիալիզմի պայքարի կենտրոնն այժմ գտնվում է Ռուսաստանում, Ձերդ գերազանցության շնորհիվ:
      Ահա թե ինչու ես մեծ հույս ունեմ, որ Դուք կարող եք օգնել ինձ բարեփոխելու տեսական ֆիզիկան և այն նորից դարձնելու իսկական ճշգրիտ գիտություն:

      Մեծ հարգանքով՝

      Ռոբերտ Նազարյան

  2. “a high school dropout who failed his technical college entrance exam, entered that technical college by the skin of his teeth”
    To put this in proper perspective: Einstein was only sixteen when he took the Zurich Polytechnic entrance exam in 1895, and his grades in physics and mathematics were exceptional. It is not the case that he entered the technical college by the skin of his teeth. The Director of the prestigious Zurich Polytechnic advised him to bring his other subjects up to scratch at a Swiss high school, and the following year, while still only seventeen, he gained good grades in the Matura (university entrance level exams), coming top of the nine candidates in his group, enabling him to join the physics and mathematics teacher training course in 1896.

  3. Dr. Esterson is absolutely correct about Einstein and his early education. Einstein was bright as a child, contrary to popular belief, and, though he failed his entrance exam to the Poly the first time, he was still young when he entered at age 17.


      The Armenian Revolution in Science Continues

      We called this third volume of our research work “Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space”, which best describes the very essence of our theory. The term “special” means that in this volume mainly discusses the case when observing systems are inertial systems (of course, with the Armenian interpretation). In addition, in this third volume, we have recognized that all observing and observed systems have the same “weight”, that is in some sense, all systems are equivalent to each other. And what this means will become clear in the following volumes.
      By re-interpreting some very important concepts in the “Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space”, such as “observed time” and “own time”, we were able to solve the nested crisis in the legacy theory of relativity, which been revealed in our second volume. We also outline the way to solve the problem of particle system movement as whole.
      We have also proved that “Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space” is rich in fine and difficult to grasp concepts, in many cases unexpected ideas and interpretations that are contrary to traditional physics perceptions and experiences. In our illustrated book, intended for wide circles, using only pure mathematical approach, we have been able to provide a new scientific breakthrough in the interpretation of the concepts of time and space, and have paved the way for the construction of the most general and unified theory.
      The “Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space” is mathematically so solid and perfect that it can’t be wrong. Therefore, our derived Armenian Transformation Equations and all other Armenian Relativistic Formulas should not only replace Lorentz transformation equations or other legacy relativistic relations, but all modern theoretical physics must be rewritten again. Because the transformation equations and other formulas of legacy theory of relativity, are only a very special case of our derived formulas in Armenian Special Theory of Time-Space, when s = 0 and g = -1 .
      The many transformation equations and many other important relations contained in this volume are presented very briefly, with almost no strong proofs, and readers must make sufficient effort to verify for themselves the derivation of all our transformation equations and relativistic formulas.
      And finally, in this third volume of our research work, you will come across amazing interpretations and see new beautiful formulas that the World has never seen before and these mathematical formulas are capable of reforming the future of mankind by creating a new golden age of scientific breakthroughs, free from all types of spiritual, mental and physical leprosy.

      Long Live the Revival of Armenian Science!

      Long Live the Armenian Revolution in Science!

      For reading the book click one of these links:






      Downloading the book for free click one of these links:




  4. Thank you to Dr. Terjanian for the kind and warm invitation. Yes, I’ve been to Armenia, and if I have the opportunity to go again, I will be happy to get in touch with him. Thank you also to the others who have contacted me directly.

    My Second Letter to Her Excellency Chancellor Angela Merkel

    Chancellor of The Federal Republic of Germany
    The Chancellery, Berlin
    August 20, 2018

    Armenia and Germania are the same nation divided geographically for more than two thousand years.

    Your Excellency Chancellor Angela Merkel,

    This is the second time I am writing to you. The first time I wrote you, it was on 20 April 2014, where I congratulated you on your third election to the office of Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany and now I have chance to congratulate you for your fourth election as Chancellor of Germany (see attachment).

    In that previous letter I also asked you as a favor to help me spread our new theory – Asymmetric Theory of Relativity, which can change everything in theoretical and experimental physics as we know it now and give hope for the human species, that we can harness infinite free energy from a vacuum forever.

    Within these four years many important things happened in my life. First, in April 2016, I permanently move from USA to Fatherland and second we succeeded to publish in Armenia our new research in two volumes (in Armenian and in English), with presentation style. Those books you can take from here:

    1. First volume in English
    2. Second volume in English

    Your Excellency I would also like to express my gratitude that within the framework of your regional visit to the countries of the South Caucasus, you have planned also to make an official visit to Armenia. I hope you planned to have a lot high-level talks with our PM and put solid ground of relations between two nations with the same roots.

    I urge you in time of your historic visit to Armenia to discuss with PM Armenia also about founding in Armenia a new international scientific center, where can be researched and build generators of infinite free energy, which can be permanent solution for all nations, including Germany, to provide energy needs, without using oil and gas. This exclusive partnership can have simple formula – you (Germany) provide modern technology to build that new scientific center and we (Armenia) provide a new physical theory in 3D, which the world has never seen before.

    Oil and natural gas are just chemical substances which are rich in elements that can be used in other branches of industries, but to burn oil or gas for getting energy is a Stone Age technology which needs to change.

    Your Excellency, please imagine perfect axiomatic physical theory with set of new Maxwell equations with more terms and new universal constants, where each new term and universal constant can be represent whole new branch of technological breakthrough. We also have a name for our joint new international scientific center – Tondrak. First Tondrak is active volcanic mountain in historic Armenian Highland (now part of Turkey), where Armenian mythological persons bake Armenian sacred bread (lavash). Second Tondrak also was heretical Christian reformist movement center in Minor Asia between the 9-11 centuries and has big impact on Armenian belief system. New Armenian religion movement was suppressed and the followers spread all over Europe putting the foundation of European Renaissance. The name Tondrak best described our new revolutionary theory fight against organized scientific establishment and corrupt educational system in the world.

    Our research is really original and solid mathematical theory, which has the aim to end the chaos and speculations in the theory of relativity and in theoretical physics at large, which has been lasting more than 100 years. Using only mathematical logic and few axioms, we build a theory of relativity in one dimension and in 3 dimensions as well. After that we finally build the unified field theory – final dream of all theoretical physicists. And this situation is very similar to that of Euclid’s time, where Euclid with the power of logic and a few axioms ended all the speculations and confusion in geometry and brought peace to mathematics. Our new theory is not contradicted existing legacy theory of relativity and all legacy formulas and equations can be obtained from Armenian Theory of Relativity as a very special case, putting s = 0 and g = -1 .

    Let me show to your excellence very generalized timeline of nuclear power and atomic bomb:
    1905 – theoretical physics give the formula that mass can changed into pure energy,
    (inserted picture)
    1935 – discovered medium (uranium 235 fission) where that energy can be unleashed,
    1940 – USA finance the Manhattan Project,
    1945 – USA get the nuclear power and atomic bomb.

    What can be timeline for use infinite free energy?
    2012 – by us derived theoretical formula of momentum-energy for rest mass,
    (inserted picture)

    The rest of the timeline right now is unknown and that is dependent on decisions of world leaders like yourself, who has a scientific education and therefore can understand the importance of discovery and to do right thing to help the human species, which is facing a growing energetic crises and climate changes.

    Your Excellency, our introduced new axiomatic theory – Asymmetric Theory of Relativity in one dimension, which we revealed to the world, is just a tip of the iceberg and has agenda to show the professional theoretical and experimental physicists, that what they can expect from the same theory in three dimensions, which we will not be revealed unless with some form of exclusive agreement between governments (two or may be many parties) to insure it peaceful use.

    I transfer also our research results into a new presentation show format, which you can take from here:

    100 years of inquisition in physics is now over and Infinite Free Energy Age has begun!

    Best Regards,

    Robert Nazaryan,
    Physics Department, Yerevan State University, Armenia

  6. Thank you Tom Vartabedian for this fascinating article about Alice (Abeghian) Calaprice. I knew her husband Frank before she met him at Berkeley because we were both students at Pasadena City College at Pasadena, California from about 1957-1959 and took the same basic Engineering Physics courses there. Sheldon Wells was also a mutual friend who also was accepted at UC Berkeley and majored in physics. We all graduated in 1961. Frank and Sheldon remained there and earned Ph.D. degrees. I left and earned an M.S. degree in physics under the late Professor Earl D. Jacobs, Ph.D. at California State University at Los Angeles, 1962 and Ph.D degree in physics under the late Professor Peter Kaus, Ph.D. at UC Riverside in 1966. I did both experimental research in the Hall Effect at liquid Helium temperatures and theoretical problem attempting to calculate the Rho meson self consistently using the crossing relations. I was a faculty member at the University of Georgia 1966-1978 and was close friends with the late George Adomian, Borrow Professor of Mathematics there. George had a Ph.D. in physics from UCLA and was an expert in stochastic theory. He would have loved to read these articles and books by Frank’s wife. Some of his children live in California. I will try to inform them of all this great work. Armenia has produced some fabulous people and George was not happy about some of the false bigotry against some of them.
    By the way, as a student at UC Berkeley from 1959-1961 I went in and out of the physics building LeConte Hall every day. I had no idea at the time that it was named after a giant scholar and physicist from Georgia John LeConte M.D., 1818-1891. This remarkable story is told in the Ph.D. Dissertation by John S. LuPold, Ph.D.:
    “From Physician to Physicist: The Scientific Career of John LeConte 1818-1891” University of South Carolina, Columbia, 1970. John and his younger brother Joe lost everything during the Civil War. But John traveled all the way around South America and back up the West Coast to Berkeley to become the first President and first Professor of Physics there in 1868, followed by his younger brother Joe a few years later who traveled there on the newly formed Transcontinental Railroad and was first professor of Geology there. Both of these intellectual giants were from Georgia! John LeConte was considered Father of the University of California and set the high standards and pace for its greatness in the 20th Century. I left UGA in 1978 although I had lifetime tenure due mainly to lying and cheating by two deans and three department heads to the tenured faculty for over five years. UGA has gone down from its former greatness of the 19th Century. Winfield J. Abbe, Ph.D., Physics, Athens, GA

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